Recent paintings explore the conceptual world of Quantum Physics and how these theories can be explored through paintings. Quantum physics suggests that objects exist not so much as objects but as mists of possibilities of being that are here, there and everywhere at the same time. Then someone looks and the possibilities suddenly collapse into definite locations. That is contrary to our everyday experience where objects exist at one place at one time. We know something is either here, or not here, and that does not depend on whether we look at it. (1)
I have been working with the idea of the “mist of possibilities” in a series of oil paintings I am calling, what else? Possibilities. The first group of paintings in the series used the human figure as a vehicle for imagining the world “out there” arranging and re-arranging itself then collapsing into possible locations in the presence of the viewer.
in his blog, Paul Levy says, “quantum physics…activates the psyche, inspires the imagination and synchronistically dissolves the boundary between mind and matter”.
He suggests that, “Quantum theory demands a radical re-visioning of the role that consciousness plays in the unfolding of reality. Quantum physics is pointing out, in unequivocal terms, that the study of the universe and the study of consciousness are inseparably linked, and that ultimate progress in the one will be impossible without progress in the other.”
He goes on to say, “Quantum physics obliterated the classical notion of an independently existing world forever and has destroyed the concept of the world as ‘sitting out there.’ The universe will never afterwards be the same…According to quantum theory, the idea of a world independent of our observation has conventional meaning, but ultimately speaking, is incorrect. Our perception of the universe is a part of the universe happening through us that has an instantaneous effect on the universe we are observing. It makes no sense to think of ourselves as a self-enclosed, encapsulated, independent agent existing separate from the universe. Quantum theory has opened up the door to a profoundly new vision of the cosmos, where the observer, the observed and the act of observation are inseparably united…”
These ideas are compelling not least because of their impact on our ideas about objectivity and the ability for experts to make value neutral judgements.
In quantum physics, we are no longer passive witnesses of the universe, but rather, we unavoidably find ourselves in the new role of active participants who in-form, give shape to and in some mysterious sense “create” the very universe we are interacting with. As Levy says, “Quantum physics is itself the greatest threat to the underlying metaphysical assumptions of “scientific materialism,” a perspective which assumes that there is an independently existing, objective material world that is separate from the observer.” Then he ramps the discussion up to the next stage where it is believed by some that, “…quantum physics heralds the advent of an altogether new stage of human psycho-spiritual evolution. What seems to be an independent universe is in actuality a play of appearances…”
The next in the Possibilities series of paintings looked at this “play of appearances” using botanical images to explore the illusion of reality in our perceptions.
It is a richly visual concept with enormous painterly potential but I felt that a stepped gradation from disorganized to organized image seemed too orderly to address the idea that that there is no independently existing, objective material world that is separate from the observer.
So I began to allow a greater disorder into the work to capture the spirit of this greatest threat to the assumptions of scientific materialism again but continuing to use botanical images as the essence of the world “out there”.
Levy describes multi-faceted quantum reality as giving us “a greater resolution and capacity to see what no single vantage point can reveal. This confined, unfamiliar quantum animal is like a dream figure that exists within ourselves.”
This idea of the dream figure relates to the next paintings in the Possibilities series that returned to using the human figure as an image in an unconstrained way. These works give expression to the permeable barrier that exists between humans and the “outside world” from a quantum perspective.
Levy goes on to outline the moral/ethical/spiritual potential of this new paradigm: ” In re-visioning our idea of the world we live in, we change our perception of the possibilities available in our world, thus opening up previously unimagined pathways of creative and effective action…The apparent world “out there” has its roots in a field of sentience that is inextricably interwoven with the physical world while at the same time being shaped by the world of innumerable observers.”
This is the area of Quantum Physics that aligns itself with thousands of years of philisophical and mystical traditions. These traditions have been telling us for millenia that humans are connected to everything else and that what goes on “in here” affects what happens “out there”. For instance the ultimate goal of Yoga, according to my limited understanding, is to awaken individual consciousness to awareness that it is part of a universal consciousness.
I like his explanation for why the objective world “out there” appears to have an independent reality. He suggests that “…because of the quantum, dreamlike (i.e., consciousness-based) nature of reality, once we view the universe “as if” it independently, objectively exists, it will manifest in a way which simply confirms our viewpoint. Nature seems to respond in accordance with the theory and beliefs by which it is approached.”
It’s a fascinating theory that makes all of us creators because we are participating in creating our experience of the universe. Levy takes his blog to that most interesting and exciting aspect of quantum world where we are “bringing about that which appears to be happening as well as creating our experience of ourselves…Being a form of insight, physics is a form of art; as such, quantum physics is reflecting back to us the part of ourselves that is a creator of experience”.
Who knew that science was an art form? Or that life itself is an art form? So Joseph Beuys was right after all, everyone is an artist.
(1) The New York Times (web version), Science, July 11,2000
The art historian/critic James Elkins made an interesting statement in his 2005 book on Modernisms & Postmodernisms, Master Narratives and their Discontents (1). The focus of the book is the role of painting in Modernist & Postmodernist theories and the core question of whether painting is irrelevant to contemporary visual arts.
If our understanding of contemporary visual arts is based on the assumption that there is a clear trajectory of progress in art-making where the avant guard reject the outdated, unconscious approach of the past and present and lead us forward into the future through new ways of presenting images, then the Postmodernist rejection of painting is justified. Postmodernism and painting are mutually exclusive because painting is a creature of Modernist theory and Modernist theories rest on belief in the ability of art, specifically painting, to transcend the human condition.
Postmodern theories suggest that the Modernisms belief that art can transcend entanglement with the political, moral and social failings of the time in which it is created are at the core of paintings irrelevance. From this perspective, the whole history of Modernist painting is its coming painfully to an understanding of its place in the disenchantment of the world.Criticism of Modernism is essential based on the uselessness of the received rules of painting and the hopelessness of proceeding as if painting could be the place where the world is “reenchanted” (2).
In response to modernism and painting’s association with hopeless efforts to re-enchant the world and using useless rules, contemporary art schools and postmodern critics reject painting and favour of other visual art media, such as video and other new media. And those who do dare to paint are careful to avoid using received rules. Elkins touches on the problems with this approach:
“It is certainly much easier to make an acceptable piece of video art than it is to make an acceptable painting, and…the reason for the relative ease of video art is that painting has a longer history: more strictures, more limitations, fewer possibilities, a much denser lexicon of critical terms. Therefore…the ease of video is a reason to keep considering painting, especially when it’s a place where things seem to keep going wrong, or where the artists are deliberately misbehaving themselves, piling kitch on camp on kitch without end”(3). He uses the example of Jeff Koons, whose “…place in the history of twentieth century art is assured in part because of his apparently deeply sincere endorsement of kitch ideas and kitch media”(4) .
The Torment of the Artist
The painful understanding of the disenchantment of the world is captured in a few evocative sentences by my current favourite author, Richard Powers. In his 2009 story, Generosity, he describes the torment of the artist reluctant to contribute to the meaningless torrent of artistic works flooding the world at any given moment. In the face of ecological, social and economic megadisasters an artist can only tell,”…the odds against ever feeling at home in the world again. About huge movements of capital that render self-realization quaint at best. About the catastrophe of collective wisdom getting what we want, at last.”(5) This is the quandry that postmodernism has met with illogic and irrationality.
Powers outlines the decline of modernism through the disenchantment of a budding art historian who “…nurtured the belief that the deepest satisfaction lay in those cultural works that survive the test of Long Time. But a collision with postcolonialism….shook her faith in masterpieces.A course in Marxist interpretation of the Italian Renaissance left her furious. For a little while longer she soldiered on, fighting the good fight for artistic transcendence until she realized that all the commanding officers had already negotiated safe passage away from the rout.” (6)
Elkins describes Postmodernism as not the name of a period with a definable approach such as postimpressionism but “…a condition of resistance that can arise wherever modernist ideas are in place. Postmodernism works like a dormant illness in the body of modernism: when modernism falters and fails, postmodernism flourishes.” (7)
Elkins’ & Power’s complementary works agree that the assumption that art can transcend the human condition is core value of modernism that the postmodern critique rejects. So how can artists, especially painters, step off the one-dimensional plane of here and now and create works that are timeless, universal and make transcendence viable?
The return of Myth
In his blog, [Re]construction: Metamodern ‘Transcendence’ and the Return of Myth, Brendan Dempsey, a graduate student at Yale University, courageously enters the fray. He suggests that “metamodern mythopoeia reasserts a form of ‘transcendence’ without forfeiting postmodern immanence as it reconstructs artificial paradigmatic models for the twenty-first century. He includes the work of several young artist who he feels are involved in is artistic mythmaking that oscillates between the poles of discredited modernist myths and postmodern superficiality.
This work by Adam Miler is an example of a painting that Dempsey believes “reconstructs artificial paradigmatic models for the twenty-first century” and “oscillates between the poles of discredited modernist myths and postmodern superficiality”. The artist is clearly well-meaning and may feel he is delivering an impassioned critique late-capitalist decay by depicting a fauness vanquished by the violent spirit of development.
But his high-mindedness has not saved Miller from the same pitfalls that have ensnared artists of earlier epochs. The egregiously voluptuous fauness dooms the work to the level of soft-core porn, despite its censoriousness. And its relentless realism ignores a century of modernism’s struggles to define the role of painting when photography can reproduce reality so much better.
Perhaps myths are not something that can be conjured out of thin air by modern men steeped in a myth-denying culture. Myths are stories that live in our DNA and make sense to us because they are part of the fabric of ourselves as human beings. As Joseph Campbell would say (8), true myths are our ties to the past that help us to understand the world and ourselves.The myths that have come down to us through thousands of years of oral and written history are precious strands of our true selves and attempting to discredit them is like trying to discredit the seasons. This is clearly not a direction that will “reassert a form of transcendence”.
It could perhaps be said that much of Post-modernist theories of have been developed in reaction against Clement Greenburg’s definition of what good painting is and is not. Greenburg simply defined good painting as something that someone with good taste, such as himself, could see was a good painting. His point of view is at once highly offensive and rather appealing. It is offensive because, because as a Modernist, he was not yet aware of Post-Modernism greatest contribution to criticism in all genres – the awareness of bias.
Scientific research on perception showed that the mere act of observation affects the thing observed. This has led to a general understanding that it is impossible to be objective – that the observer sees based on a set of values and assumptions that influence what is seen. This understanding has led to a cultural revolution in all areas including the arts.
No longer were dead white men automatically considered the “greats” of literature, drama, music and the visual arts. It was no longer intellectually acceptable to assume that women and minorities were grossly under-represented among the “greats” because they were simply incapable of creating masterpieces. Once using the “greats” as a yardstick for excellence was gone, the very concept of excellence came under attack and anything that its creator called art was accepted as such.
But the postmodernist critique, while entirely justified and rationale, has been taken to its extremes, until, as Elkins says, we have been subjected to exhibitions “piling kitch on camp on kitch without end”. So it is worthwhile to revisit Greengerg’s worldview to retrace our steps.
Greenberg never seemed to be interested in examining his assumption that, because he was a person with good taste, what he saw as a good painting was a good painting and he needed to provide no further evidence of this. But the reason his attitude is still appealing is because he is right in saying that the point of art is to abandon oneself to the pleasure of viewing. It is not an intellectual activity that requires several wall-feet of text to understand. Art, is a visual, visceral, sensuous experience that bypasses the busy brain and transcends mundane day-to-day life.
Jackson Pollack was Greenberg’s most famous protégé and is a good example of a painter whose work as a visual experience is not narrative, not conceptual and certainly not banal. It is a pleasure to lose oneself in this artist’s ability to weave a surface of textures and pattens with all the complexity of nature but the intentionality of a human sensibility.
Other painters that Greenberg loved, such as Larry Poons also confirmed his good taste.
Not all of the painters Greenberg admired are immediately recognizable as a visual, visceral, sensuous experience. Perhaps, as he said, you had to stand in front of them. But the point he was making is that a great painting can transcend entanglement with the political, moral and social failings of the time in which it is created. Paintings is not and never can be irrelevant because we only have to look at a great painting like those above to know that they can create a place where the world is “reenchanted”.
Elkins, James, Master Narratives and Their Discontents, New York ; London : Routledge, 2005.
Ibid, pp. 52-55
Ibid p. 164
Ibid p. 70
Powers, Richard, Generosity 2009, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 152
6) Ibid p. 61
Op Cit, Elkins p. 89.
Joseph Campbell, The Power Of Myth, Doubleday, 1988
Clement Greenberg, Late Writings, Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 2003
Last year, I spent 3 weeks in Florence Italy, with day trips to Siena & Lucca. It was a heavenly immersion in Italian Renaissance art, with a generous helping of my favourite motif – wingéd human/animal creatures. In Renaissance Florence, these creatures were called “Grotesques” and embellished everything from ceilings to ceramics and are anything but grotesque. Beautifully painted with technical panache, they are a light-hearted treatment of otherworldly beings.
Though the styles are very similar in all the ceiling “grotesques” the artists let their imaginations run wild in ceramic “grotesques”. For instance, the figures below appear to be hermaphrodites.
And these creatures appear to be involved in aerial copulation.
The artists must have had such fun with these images that embellished surfaces everywhere. It makes our sterile interiors see lifeless in comparison.
As described in earlier posts, images conflating animals & humans have fascinated me to over 30 years so it was very exciting to explore a cultural period that clearly found much pleasure in these images.
The first painting that sprang from the Florence experience is called Wingéd Seraphim II. In company with artists for many millennia, I am fascinated by the idea of flying humans. These are sometimes depicted as angels and sometimes as devils. In my version, they are simply plump beings plying the heavens in their own interests and oblivious to anything going on below.
According to Wikepedia, the word seraph/seraphim appears three times in the Torah and four times in the Book of Isaiah. In Isaiah the term is used to describe a type of celestial being or angel. “Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly.”
The Bible contains the words of Ezekiel as he described his vision of “…four living creatures. In appearance their form was human,but each of them had four faces and four wings.Their legs were straight; their feet were like those of a calf and gleamed like burnished bronze.Under their wings on their four sides they had human hands. All four of them had faces and wings,and the wings of one touched the wings of another.Their faces looked like this: Each of the four had the face of a human being, and on the right side each had the face of a lion, and on the left the face of an ox; each also had the face of an eagle.Such were their faces. They each had two wings spreading out upward, each wing touching that of the creature on either side. Four living creatures. In appearance their form was human,but each of them had four faces and four wings.Their legs were straight; their feet were like those of a calf and gleamed like burnished bronze.Under their wings on their four sides they had human hands. All four of them had faces and wings,and the wings of one touched the wings of another. “
Before now, I felt uncomfortable about a visual exploration of mythical creatures in the context of the Abrahamic religions. I was concerned that melded human/animal figures would be anathema to that tradition, based as it is on the idea of humans as made in God’s image. I feared that depicting animal/human creatures, especially in the context of classical Christian imagery, would be offensive to some, and I have no wish to offend anyone’s spiritual beliefs. So it was liberating to see human/animal creatures used lavishly in the palaces of those who would consider themselves devout.
The big surprise was to discover that references to “winged seraphim” in the Bible also refers to serpents. When I worked on my painting Wingéd Seraphim, I assumed that the images would be a challenge to Christian orthodoxy, not realizing that flying serpents were a part of the tradition. Naturally, it would have been assumed by Biblical writers & scholars that all these creatures would be male, as the tradition is deeply patriarchal. So the painting does challenge the unacknowledged assumptions in the Abrahamic tradition, that all the important players are male.
Having assured myself that animal/human beings are part of, rather than offensive to, the Abrahmic traditions, I have resurrected some paintings I started many years ago but never finished. These are part of the “Grotesque” series because they use the animal/human motif, but they are re-workings of famous classical art, some to do with Christian imagery, some to do with classical mythology. The first of these is also called “WIngéd Seraphim”. This painting explores the concept of humans as made in the image of God and the only creatures with a soul.
This painting is based on a classical painting that likely refers to the Biblical reference, John 1:51. Jesus tells Nathanael that he will “see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man“. Unfortunately, I am unable to locate the original painting, but will keep trying. The angels Jesus refers to are usually depicted as in the following image – as Anglo-Saxon humans in long white Grecian-type robes.
I can’t seem to find an attribution for the above image and it is widely used on Christian sites. But according to explorefaith.org, “Occasionally, an angel takes the form of an animal. According to standard Christian, Jewish, and Muslim belief, an angel can take any form it wishes…”. The argument is that, in order to communicate with humans, angels take on human form. So again, an idea that I was concerned may be offensive to Christians is again, acceptable tot eh doctrine.
The second painting in this series, called “Elegy” is again an exploration of the idea that God only cares about human animals as they are the only beings with souls. So God sent Jesus to help humans perfect their souls, but instead, we murdered Him. This painting investigates the possibility that God cares about all creature here below, even and possibly especially, frogs. I chose frogs because they are an endangered species due to climate change & the thinning of the ozone layer. They are beautiful creatures created by God, but we are murdering them. Through their demise, like Jesus, they are messengers that we are destroying what is most precious.
I happened to come across the original painting in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, and here it is.
Pietà (1516), Fra Bartolomeo, color on wood, 62.2″ × 78.3″, Palazzo Pitti, Florence.
But there appear to be 2 versions of this painting. Here is the other one.
In the “Grotesque” series, I also explore human conceptions of beauty. Naturally, humans seek physical attractiveness in other humans, but our anthropocentric world view means that we tend not to see the grace & of beauty of other species. To question this view, I used the one of the most famous images from classical mythology and art – the three graces. Called, “The Three Graces”, this painting features 3 female figures with melded human/Great Blue Heron bodies.
This work was based on the famous 14th C painting of the same name.
I have also described this area of inquiry in Blog Post #10: On Women which goes further into the inspiration for this piece.
Currently I am working on a series of paintings that strives to capture in oils my understanding that life is a continual state of flux in which formless takes on form then returns to formlessness. Many philosophical traditions suggest that the only way to live within this flux is to focus on the present moment. This series depicts the momentary nature of existence as that which has become form is in the process of becoming something else as we observe it. It is a celebration of the beauty and wonder of this constant creation/destruction using as a visual metaphor the vegetable kingdom in which tiny seeds become edible plants then return to the earth in the inevitable seasonal cycle of growth & decay.
The series portrays this continual state of change by showing the fruits of my gardening labours emerging then subsiding into background particles of energy. The computer digitization process is a perfect analogy for this process as all digital information exists as one of two digits, either 0 or 1. Digital images are made up of patterns of 1’s & 0’s.
These 18” x 24” (45cm x 60cm) oil paintings on canvas are the result of a multi-stage process. First I grow the subject fruits & vegetables in my garden,
then photograph them,
then manipulate the digital images in Photoshop and finally transpose these images into paint in my studio.
Lately growing vegetables has become an increasingly important part of my life, often warring with time in the studio. So it has been particularly satisfying to be able to connect two things I love doing in this series of paintings.
This series has also provided an opportunity to work with photographs & exercise my Photoshop skills. I’ve been taking photographs since 1972 when I borrowed the art school camera and learned to develop my own negatives & prints. Since then I have mostly used photography to document my artwork and/or play with creating interesting juxtapositions of sculptures in still-lifes or landscapes such as the” eggs” and “female torsos” series described in blog #14: On Love.
The paintings expand on a painting & drawing technique that has always fascinated me – where dots or lines are used to represent light as in traditional cross-hatch techniques. This technique was the backbone of my illustration career (see pages Drawing, Black & White and Illustration.
They also pick up on a style of painting that I was experimenting with in the late 1990’s & early 2000’s.
So what might appear to be a checkered body of work to some is to me a seamless tapestry of ideas & themes that appear & re-appear.
In some ways it has taken a lot of nerve to paint flowers & plants. Like painting nude women, a subject investigated in an earlier Blog, #10: On Women, painting botanicals is fraught with danger. As in paintings of women, such as Venus & Cupid by Lely shown below,
Venus & Cupid; circa 1640; Sir Peter Lely; oil on canvas
languid nudes have become such a stereotype that it is almost impossible to use an image of a nude woman in art without it being trite – a cliche´
Similarly, paintings of flowers & plants have been done to death.
Since Van Gogh’s masterly use of the subject, every beginning painter does flowers and every beginning collector buys them.
They look so nice over the sofa.
A quick Google image search of paintings of flowers reveals the extent of this genre and some of the more obvious painterly pitfalls therein.
So it has been necessary to overcome serious trepidation about exploring this over-blown subject.
But the truth is, I am enjoying working on this series so it’s time to throw caution to the wind, and create the work that wants to emerge, even if it’s the risky field of botanicals.
The following paintings are from a series called Ephemera. This series works through a number of ideas for sculptures in clear sheet acrylic that may or may not be developed in three dimensions at some time in the future. The palette tried to conform to the colours available in sheet acrylic. For instance, Winter Song was a study for a hanging transparent sheet acrylic sculpture in three primary colours in a winter landscape.
The series uses an unrestricted palette which may have been a reaction against the preceding ten years of primarily black and white illustrations.This series was created during a fairly heady period of my life when I was doing a lot of abstract thinking and grappling with weighty philosophical questions.
Antediluvian Celestial Geometry plays with the idea that, if an idea, such as that of a shape, can exist in the mind, it must exist in the real world and if an idea for a shape exists now, it must have existed forever. The cloudy, spatial theme is suggestive of star clusters, the birth of creation, creativity.
Though actual fabrication will necessitate adherence to the laws of physics, this series ignores rules regarding the play of lights and shadows, perspective and representation of forms.
What Time it Really Is, is another next world scenario where large explosive physical forms are moving at light speed through various dimensions while interacting with smaller, more one-dimensional forms. The questions in mind at the time were: “is this going on all around us? Does anybody really know? Are we merely conditioned to accept visual rules?”
These paintings are “what-ifs”. What if a clear acrylic form could move through space? What if it could kinetically change its form?
Every day, our bodies go through transformations between states of energy and states of matter. As we age, the matter begins to break down until finally we are ready to become an energy field or spirit. But if we concentrate on the needs of self, rather than persona, we do not exhibit expected behaviours and our behaviour becomes increasingly unbecoming.
As a subtext, the series explores the life of the mind, body and spirit. For instance, “Debate with Descarte”, is a visual argument with the 17th Century philosopher who formalized the mind/body dichotomy and championed the superiority of mental over physical processes. It contrasts cloudy, wavering thoughts and hard physical forms. Humans have always conceived of mind as emanating from above; as descending from the clouds and therefore superior to the earthly forms below. Several centuries after Descarte, we do well to question the superiority of the human mind over the works of creation.
Both Sides of Life, asks “what if life could be summed up as a clear, transparent, colourless shape?” Is this more or less what is left over after our carbon-based physical form oxidizes?” Our physical form makes it difficult to see the rich flow of colour and energy going on around, through, in front of and behind us. We can act a lens through which ideas and energy flow or a lens cap.
The series also included studies for sculptures combining hardware such as metal rods, chains & sheet metal with transparent clear sheet acrylic. I was especially interested in the images of chains that suggest supporting, bonding & connecting as well as binding & enslaving.
The series departed from studies for what could theoretically be fabricated in sheet acrylic and also simply explored visual ideas the vocabulary of forms that had evolved.
Passions in Passing, below, was influenced by the loss of my dear aunt, the painter Ione McIntyre. She was an artistic inspiration as well as a goad, demanding to know why I was studying the history of art in university instead of making art, which she knew was what I really wanted. I was with her when she died and it was my first experience of death. Witnessing the death of a loved one is a transformative experience underscoring the ephemeral and transitory nature of life. It makes one aware that we all go around in a state of oblivion, ignoring the fundamental fact that our days are numbered and livingour lives as though we have an eternity to wallow in self-delusions.
Passions was the clearest reference to this paradox and raises the issue of humans as the only life form with a spirit. My aunt would certainly not have thought so and would have fully expected to see her dear cats on the other side.
Celebration captures the manic, joyous energy that painting imparts. It is a celebration of life energy zooming toward a known end point. The fact that there is an end point gives life its beauty and richness.
Coming Through, is another expression of the need to continually re-invent oneself as an artist. There is no form that can define without getting in the way, so there is a need to break down rigid self-images and break through to new awareness of self.
I used to claim that, “I make art because I have to” as the daily pursuit of the elusive goal of expressing ideas visually gave my life focus and direction in the same way that religion or a strong philosophical framework might provide this for others. Now I make art because I love to. The process of creation is is like meditation in that it is centering, calming and builds self-awareness. Joy comes from overriding the over-busy mind and being present in the moment of creation. And to be in the moment, all other worries, problems, desires and ambitions must be put aside to be tuned into what the work needs as it comes into being.
The 2D/3D series built on earlier work in the Ephemera series. It explores the dualities of male & female, vertical and horizontal, soft and hard, open and closed, active & passive.
oil on canvas
40” x 30”
These paintings built on the previous series by focusing more on the transition between an idea and its realization and between an idea realized in one dimension then translated into a third. A background interest was the concept that the observer not only influences what is observed but can direct that influence in a positive or negative way. Often called the uncertainty principle, it is a fascinating discovery in that it affects all concepts of and understanding about creativity. It is described in Wikipedia as follows:
“This (the uncertainty principle) ascribes the uncertainty in the measurable quantities to the jolt-like disturbance triggered by the act of observation. Though widely repeated in textbooks, this physical argument is now known to be fundamentally misleading. While the act of measurement does lead to uncertainty, the loss of precision is less than that predicted by Heisenberg’s argument; the formal mathematical result remains valid, however. Historically, the uncertainty principle has been confused with a somewhat similar effect in physics, called the observer effect, which notes that measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the systems. Heisenberg offered such an observer effect at the quantum level (see below) as a physical “explanation” of quantum uncertainty. It has since become clear, however, that the uncertainty principle is inherent in the properties of all wave-like systems, and that it arises in quantum mechanics simply due to the matter wave nature of all quantum objects. Thus, the uncertainty principle actually states a fundamental property of quantum systems, and is not a statement about the observational success of current technology.[9″
These works are intentionally lush to re-create on canvas the intensity of the process and to communicate that experience. This assumes that imagination and creativity are human attributes that offer the greatest potential for harmony. It also assumes that art can and should act as a counter-weight to the overwhelmingly empty or negative images with which we are continually barraged rather than underline them.
I wrestle with being a modernist painter in a post-modern era. While I recognize and accept the post-modern critique that has forced artists to examine their assumptions for socially enforced dysfunctional paradigms, I believe artists should move beyond a critical stance to a more pro-active role. While cynicism and irony have been important tools for creating distance from unrealistic optimism, I am interested in rejuvenating art’s role as an avenue for exploring spiritual aspects of human experience. In an increasingly crowded globe with divisive religious differences, art can help to focus on what is worthwhile. Humbly aware of my own shortcomings, I am working in that direction.
oil on canvas
36” x 48”
oil on canvas
30” x 40”
These paintings were developed during the summer I lived in a small cabin in an organic orchard in Winfield on the outskirts of Kelowna while working on a sculpture commission for that city. After a long day onsite in the hot city I would return to the cabin in the evenings and draw. It was almost a retreat experience as I barely had electricity and no phone, fax, computer or all the distracting paraphernalia of modern life.
I bought a sheaf of drawing papers, a bundle of oil pastels and lost myself in the joy of form, colour, line and texture. In my nightly drawing sessions I was searching for an uninhibited flow of ideas from my unconscious to the paper via my oil sticks.
oil on canvas
36” x 48”
Working in euphoric bursts of energy, I had great satisfaction in having nothing to do with the rational mind. I produced about 20 drawings in that time (see drawings page)
oil on canvas
18” x 24”
The Winfield cabin drawings were experiments in using colour, line & form and back in my Vancouver studio, they were translated into the more rigorous medium of oil paint on canvas. These drawing and paintings were then used as research for developing 3D ideas for concrete sculptures. Working through drawings and paintings is an effective way to understand and refine concepts to develop in 3D .
oil on canvas
24” x 18”
Spell to Balance
oil on canvas
48” x 36”
It was 1974 and I was pregnant with my daughter Anna-Lea. I was suffused with a peace & contentment that I suspect is God’s way of ensuring women are willing to undergo what follows. I was in my final year of art school and joyfully producing a plethora of pregnant forms. My work was as round, expansive and shiny as my belly. I was fascinated with eggy shapes and anything to do with eggs.
Marion-Lea Jamieson; Broken Yolk, 1974; Sheet Acrylic, 36”h x 48” w x 30”d
I had just discovered how to take photos & had borrowed a camera from the Art School. The Egg Boxes were photographed in a number of configurations and locations.
Unfortunately, I had not yet learned to ensure that the lens was clean.
I also choreographed & performed a couple of dance pieces during this period. The first was called Egg-Hanger, a dance piece for 6 dancers that was performed at SFU as part of the dance student show. Though I don’t have a visual record of the piece being performed, I have images of the sculpture around which the dance was performed:
The New Era Social Club was an artists’ studio on Powell Street. Other artists working there at the time included Glen Lewis, Dave Rimmer, Taki Bluesinger & Chris Dahl.
I spray-painted everything silver at that time. Still do.
I also performed a solo when I was about 7 months pregnant in the dance space of the Western Front Artists’ Collective in Vancouver as part of an evening’s performance by Linda Rubin with whom I was studying at the time.
Called “Amnion” the dance piece began with me inside a large clear polyester sac that I had made with a large zipper that allowed entry & exit. The piece ended with my emergence from the sac clad in flesh coloured leotard & tights
During the pregnancy I continued to create images of the fecund female body with an interest in exploring the, to me, interesting paradox that the female body is universally celebrated for it’s sexuality while its amazing reproductive capability is almost an embarrassment. My theory was that reproduction is an instinctual process that unequivocally links humans to their mammalian natures and belies our assumptions of species separateness & superiority.
So in 1974 a series was developed made of vacuum-formed sheet acrylic in shape of a heart using the Vancouver School of Art’s fabulous Thermoplastics studio. This studio was amazing as it had a giant oven capable of hanging a 6′ x 8′ sheet of acrylic that could then be formed. For this there was a giant vacuum-form press where the heated acrylic heated could be either sucked onto a mold through the vacuum function or the direction of the airflow could be reversed so that the hot acrylic could be blown through a cut-out blue heart in this performance was made. Sadly, the enire Thermoplastics studio was not moved the the Schools new campus on Granville Island.
Here are some other photos of the big blown acrylic hearts. A big heart shape was cut out of 3/4″ plywood and clamped over a sheet of hot acrylic. Then the air was blown through the cut out & the heart shape bubbled into life.
I also played around with vacuum-formed female torsos in the form of heart-shaped boxes. As a pregnant woman I was interested in the concept of vessels – of things within things. These heart-shaped torso boxes were filled with various items and photographed in a number of locations & juxtapositions.
As part of the heart-shaped container series, I also made a series of heart-shaped boxes. LIke the torsos, these were photographed filled with various objects;
During this period I also made a heart shaped drop leaf table that was part of a series of red-painted wooden sculptures. These included Egg-Hanger, shown above and a piece called Brass Stand at right. Though Brass Stand was not strictly speaking a part of the pregnancy-inspired “hearts & eggs” series, it is included as it was part of the red-paint that seemed to be an important aspect of my work at the time.
Brass Stand was part of a project grant received from the Vancouver School of Art that allowed the recipient to explore beyond the capabilities of the Art School. Recipients were encouraged to pay outside trades to create all or part of the artwork. I choose to explore the potential for spun brass, and created a wooden mold to be used to form the brass. I then approached a metalwork shop and asked them to recreate the wooden forms in brass. The guys in this metalwork shop couldn’t figure out what I was doing there and why I was asking them for such outlandish work. A couple of them figured I was there because I was looking to get laid, (I wasn’t pregnant at the time) and became so unpleasant that I was afraid to go back and pick up the remaining work. I was shy & unsure of myself at that stage and like most women of that time, blamed myself for creating the unwanted attention.
So my baby, Anna-Lea, was born soon after I graduated from art school and the shock of no longer being an irresponsible, fun-loving artist set in. The birth was traumatic, and I cam home to an empty ground floor apartment with no money, no help and a husband who was away on a road trip. I collected welfare & wandered around this dank apartment carrying Anna-Lea with both of us weeping for the first three months. I hadn’t really understood that as a penniless female artist, I would not have the leisure or resources to create artworks once I had a baby. The isolation was also a shock as former friends came by, saw what a miserable state I was in and never returned. They couldn’t understand why I had done this to myself.
During this period, I did manage to do a couple of paintings that were exhibited in a gallery in Chinatown specially set up to show the work of artists on welfare (those were the days).
The first three months were the hardest and the above paintings were the only works created. I realized that there was no possibility of producing visual art with a new baby & no resources. So when my sister Karen suggested starting a dance company that would accommodate babies, (she was pregnant at the time with her first) it seemed like a good idea. But that is a story for another blog.
Six years later, I had a second baby, my son James, even though my marriage was shaky and we were no better off financially. My son just celebrated his 33rd birthday and I often say that having my two children was the smartest move I ever made. Along with my second husband Colin, my children and grandchildren and his children & grandchildren are the great blessings of my life and I thank the Great Creator for having given me the wisdom to choose love over good sense.
I’ve had a few requests for more information on how I worked on the polystyrene armature for The Singer, so rather give an individual response, I thought I would post a bit more detail on the process on this blog.
The writer wanted me to provide a list of processes to go through; for instance, did I start with the back, front or sides? The first thing I have to make clear is that I do not have a clear & simple formula for cutting a polystyrene armature. I can just describe what I did. If there are any more specific questions I can try to answer them.
As outlined in previous posts, I started with a maquette and my goal was to reproduce the maquette in a piece of polystyrene at a scale of 1″ = 4.5″. I began by drawing the x & y axis onto the base of the maquette with 1/2″ numbered intervals. I then create a vertical z axis measure as shown in an earlier post. Then as shown in that post, I marked off the x & y axis on the wooden base of the polystyrene piece at 2.25″ intervals and numbered them the same as on the maquette. Then I created a vertical Z axis measure with the same numbered intervals for the large scale. This was the easy part.
The hard part was actually transcribing the measurements form the maquette to the final work. This system is more designed for an additive process like clay, when the artist can build the clay up to the point indicated by the measuring devices. With a reductive process like carving, the problem is that the point you want to get to is inside the block of material and figuring out how much & where to cut in order to reach that point is very difficult. I managed to cut away too much and had to glue more polystyrene back on. If you look carefully at the images in the same post you can see lots of yellow repair sites .(Speaking of glue, the best glue is that Expanding Spray Foam Sealant. It expands to fill the space so you don’t have to cut the amended piece exactly to size. Actual styrofoam glues form hard lumps that are too hard to run a hot wire through & are a huge pain.)
In order to record the location of reference points (such as the top of shoulder, bottom of elbow, top of knee, frontmost point of shin etc. ) I would measure it on the maquette and write down its numbers on the x,y & z axes. I started with the front and worked from the top to the bottom, then did the back. I would find a reference point on the polystyrene, mark it with a pen, connect the dots, and draw the outline. Then using the hot-wire, I cut off large swathes of polystyrene to create the very rough general shapes of the back & front. Then I did the same thing with the sides. As shown in another earlier post by that point I had the general squarish contours of the shape.
Here is where miscalculations caused later problems. The hot wire heats & stretches, creating a curve so that you are cutting not a flat plane but a concave surface. So my advice is to err on the side of caution when doing the initial big cuts. The process from there was one of going back & forth from the maquette to the polystyrene, measuring & marking points on the x,y & z axes and gradually whittling down this large squarish shape into a more rounded shape and carving in the more detailed forms. It was not easy and took considerable time, labour, concentration & organization.
I made jigs to hold measuring devices (squares, triangles, rulers) and a level together to make sure I was measuring accurately. As the reduction of the block progressed, I found the hot-wire was too broad to use and it can’t do indentations. So as I also discussed in that post I used a sawsall and a disk grinder to do more detailed work and a hand-held keyhole saw to do the fiddly bits. Here is the armature for The Singer as of now. I will complete it when I have a home for the final work. This will entail reducing the form so that it is 3″ smaller than the desired final size to serve as an armature for concrete or plaster added to the surface.
The whole process was very labour intensive and I would love to have had the money to be able to just send my maquette to one of the CNC shops and have them scale it up to full size for me. But as this was my own experiment for my own interest and no one was paying me, I had to do it the hard way.
Cutting polystyrene is hard, unpleasant work, especially when I got down near the floor and had to work with the sawsall in a crouch. Wearing a mask against dust & ear protection against noise is tiresome, so for a break I have been working on other projects.
As a pleasant and easy task, I am making molds and casting the plaster maquette of the singer.
I began by creating a polyurethane rubber mold, using Smooth-On’s Brush-on 40 product. They have a great video on their site explaining the process, though I wish they would choose a more challenging shape than a human head. Here is the rubber mold:
Then I made a mother mold out of plaster, instead of using Smooth-On’s recommended product, Plasti-Paste because I happened to have an old bag of lumpy Plaster of Paris in the studio. Big Mistake!! The plaster had been sitting absorbing water in my unheated studio for a couple of years & did not work! My advice – always go out & buy fresh plaster. Old damp plaster is clapped out & no longer reacts with water so the result is a crumbly mess. So a brand-new bag of P of P later, the mother mold took proper shape.
Once the mother mold hardened, both molds were removed, re-assembled without the original and placed upside down in a bucket for casting. I cast a few copies in hydrostone & a few in concrete, with varying results. Hydrostone is tricky to work with as it remains liquid for a long time while mixing then suddenly sets up leaving almost no time to pour. You have to pour before it starts to thicken or you’re done for.
To be honest, I had to patch up a few holes & sand them smooth again.
A friend sent me a link to a New York Times article about Hilton Kramer, who died recently at age 84. As the NY Times states:
“Mr. Kramer made it his mission to uphold the high standards of Modernism. In often withering prose, he made life miserable for curators and museum directors who, in his opinion, let down the side by exhibiting trendy or fashionably political art.
The Whitney Museum of American Art, in particular, felt the full force of his scorn every time it raised the curtain on a new biennial, whose roster generally favored installation, video and performance art, usually with a political message and an emphasis on gender and ethnic identity.
Mr. Kramer would have none of it. “The Whitney curatorial staff has amply demonstrated its weakness for funky, kinky, kitschy claptrap in recent years,” he wrote in a review of the 1975 Biennial, “and there is the inevitable abundance of this rubbish in the current show.”
Two years later, he threw his hands up in despair. The biennials, he wrote, “seem to be governed by a positive hostility toward — a really visceral distaste for — anything that might conceivably engage the eye in a significant or pleasurable visual experience.”
Mr. Kramer was impassioned in his praise when art met his high expectations. “He was a high Modernist, but he embraced a rather diverse lot that ran the gamut from Richard Pousette-Dart
to Jackson Pollock
to the Russian constructivists,” Mr. Kimball said.
He could surprise. Julian Schnabel, precisely the sort of artist one would have expected him to eviscerate, won qualified praise,
and the work of the highly eccentric Norwegian figurative painter Odd Nerdrum.”
I replied to my friend that I too consider myself a Modernist and an advocate for mastering technique in an era of novelty art, video and installations. However, where I differ from Kramer is in scorning art with a political message. Indeed, I’ve argued that art SHOULD be political. By this I mean art should come from an internal source of values, assumptions and beliefs that serve as a moral rudder. This doesn’t mean it can be kitchy or amateurish. For arguments supporting the role of politics in art, see my last blog on abstract art.
But where Kramer & others are misled is in characterizing the current worship of “funky, kinky, kitschy claptrap” as “political” rather than the result of a profound philosophical shift in thinking over the past half-century. This shift has been described under the catch-all phrase “postmodernism”, but in fact, the values, beliefs & assumptions of this perspective have been around for millennia. In previous centuries, this philosophical approach has been called “Relativism”.
Wikipedia defines Relativism as the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. The term often refers to truth relativism, which is the doctrine that there are no absolute truths, i.e., that truth is always relative to some particular frame of reference, such as a language or a culture . Wikipedia describes the Sophists as the founding fathers of relativism in the 5th century BC. The thinking of the Sophists is mainly known through their opponents, Plato and Socrates. In a well known paraphrased dialogue with Socrates, Protagoras said: “What is true for you is true for you, and what is true for me is true for me.”
Sophistry has been around for 2500 years and its current incarnation, called Postmodernism, extends the idea of truth to any assumption of expertise. In the arts, this has meant the end of the “artist as seer” or the popular perception of the artist as an individual somehow uniquely blessed with talent. In the Postmodern world, it is the idea rather than the execution that is important and everyone can have ideas even if they are not able to express them with technical expertise and a highly developed sense of aesthetics.
Postmodernism has instigated its own cultural revolution and like revolutionaries everywhere, the targets of revenge are images that represent the ancien régime. As the Christians did to statues of ancient Greek gods; as the Protestants did to Catholic religious icons; and as the Chinese Cultural Revolutionaries and later the Taliban did to Statues of Buddha; adherents of Postmodernism have metaphorically smashed the noses off earlier artistic and aesthetic values. And just as the former experts in every field were vilified & made to wear dunce caps s during the Chinese Cultural Revolution, so the experts in every field int he West have been discredited by the Postmodern Cultural Revolution.
Just as in China there may have been a perceived need to tear down the established order, so in the West there was a perceived need to destroy an art establishment rife with race, class, gender & sexual biases. A quick net surf reveals the following snippets that indicate the continuing existence of an art establishment that defends against outsiders.For instance, Wikipedia includes an artical of writer Jennifer Weiner who has been a vocal critic of the male bias in the publishing industry and the media, alleging that books by male authors are better received than those written by women, that is, reviewed more often and more highly praised by critics.
In addition to the exclusionary tendency inherent in Modernism, Modernism, had its basis in Enlightenment beliefs in the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation. At the core of the Enlightenment was a faith in human progress toward a higher level of civilization . For instance Spinoza, felt that through the application of Enlightenment thinking, human society could achieve “democracy; racial and sexual equality; individual liberty of lifestyle; full freedom of thought, expression, and the press; eradication of religious authority from the legislative process and education; and full separation of church and state”.
After two world wars, economic depression, the rise of fascism, totalitarian regimes and the eclipse of democracy by capitalist oligarchies the optimistic views of Modernism were abandoned. Wikipedia describes Modern Art as the institutionalized purview of an established elite so that modernism lost its appeal to progressive thinkers. In the 1960s the anti-modernist movements began to take shape and pave the way for the emergence of postmodernism. Thus Postmodernism evolved as an antidote to an established elite and institutionalized bias against those of the wrong gender, race, class or sexual orientation. Has this been achieved?
I ran across this quote in the Nov. 2011 issue of The Walrus magazine. interviewer Daniel Baird quotes Adam Gopnik, a bestselling New York writer, as saying,
“My work at this point is about the longing for modernity in a postmodern world.”
Baird says he is moving on to the larger, humanist, even spiritual themes and that much of his recent writing is driven by a need to find meaning and purpose within a radically secular world, to find powerful and grounding symbols of order. His current writing is about “finding a sense of home and rootedness and meaning in a fragmented postmodern world.” Hear, hear.
To me the main issue with postmodernism is the lack of any point of view, moral or otherwise, or even the belief that an artist should have a point of view. This is, I believe, what has led us in the West to the current sense of ethical & intellectual fragmentation
I have always had a conflicted relationship with abstract art. On the one hand, I love the freedom of simply creating a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition independent of the “real” world.
On the other hand, I wonder whether it isn’t just a safe way to create artwork that won’t alienate anyone by saying anything about the “real” world.
Some suggest that the preference of the arts establishment for abstract rather than representational art sprang from the uproar associated with a mural done by Diego Rivera. A program called The Rockefellersshown on PBS’s “American Experience” describes Rivera’s confrontation with the American oligarchy and its sad implications for freedom of visual expression.
Rivera was an artist with strong political convictions that were not satisfied by abstract art. Drawn by the social movements unleashed by the Mexican Revolution, Rivera returned to his homeland in 1921 where he developed a unique style that combined the influences of European art and Mexico’s distinctive pre-Columbian iconography. In his populist murals, he used vibrant colors and simple scenes to illustrate his Marxist ideals and the plight of the working class throughout Mexican history. In 1922 his revolutionary convictions led him to join the Communist Party.
In 1932 Rivera traveled to the US where the culmination of the trip was to be a large mural for the centerpiece of the most talked about architectural project in the country —- the new Rockefeller Center. Rivera’s visit to the U.S. unfolded against the backdrop of the Great Depression and the intense social and political forces it had unleashed. Rivera’s mural Man at the Crossroads, begun in 1933, would feature two opposing views of society, with capitalism on one side and socialism on the other. While still in process, a furor erupted over a portrait of Vladimir Lenin included in the mural. As an outspoken leftist, the Mexican painter had tapped into the ruling elite’s growing concerns over the upsurge of Radicalism and growth of the Communist Party. The mural was removed, hammered off the walls and all evidence of it destroyed. As a result of the negative publicity, a further commission was canceled to for Rivera to paint a mural for an exhibition at the Chicago World’s Fair.
The Tim Robbins film The Cradle Will Rock(1999) is a true story of politics and art in the 1930s USA, centered around a leftist musical drama and attempts to stop its production. Written & directed by Tim Robbin, it includes a dramatization of the confrontation between Rivera and New York’s elites set in the context of a general repression of the arts during the mid-1930’s using anti-communism as a rationale. The film suggested that this was the turning point in the history of modern art in which the political, media, financial & industrial ruling class made a conscious decision to actively promote abstraction as a politically neutral, non-threatening art form. Abstract art is safe art in that no contentious political issues are raised such that anyone could notice. Not that tempests-in-teacups haven’t raged over abstract art. I remember the kerfuffle that took place in Canada in the ’60’s when the National Gallery paid a million dollars or so for a giant blue canvas with a yellow stripe. But this is the kind of issue that politicians love – where the public attacks some small vulnerable minority like artists, rather than questioning the governing party’s self-serving policies. So though it is fun to play with forms, colours, lines & ideas in abstract ways, I wrestle with the frivolity of it. This, of course, drags forth the whole question of the meaning and purpose of art.
For many years I worked on the Running Man theme, described in an earlier blog, as a vehicle for expressing a strongly-felt philosophical perspective using a representational image that was abstracted so as to be widely applicable. When Running Man had run his course, I experimented with the purely visual universality of abstract painting while remaining wary of the empty pitfalls of decorative art. Below are a few examples of works from a series called Ephemera. These were studies for future sculptures in sheet acrylic and were depicted as though constructed from highly coloured transparent sheets of two-dimensional plastic.
Later works have carried the investigation into the possibility of creating these forms in three dimensions and in the more durable medium of concrete. Drawings and paintings in this series suggest the use of pigments in the resulting sculptures to investigate the potential for using colour to create a painterly surface.
These later works were done during the symposium where I created the steel & resin Running Man piece and was intrigued by the many excellent abstract sculptures being produced. I was living in a cabin beside an organic orchard just outside Kelowna BC and when not working on my commissioned piece, I cranked up Glenn Gould and played with oil pastels & coloured paper. The result was a series of drawings that were an adventure in line & colour.
My compass was my own inner sense of direction and a sense of excitement in the work. I used an unrestricted palette and exuberant scribbles in these drawings, eschewing precision in favour of freedom.
When exhibiting these drawings and the later paintings that grew out of them, I rationalized that I was exploring such metaphysical ideas as the relationship between the mind and body; time and space; the physical and the spiritual, because the real world demands an explanation. But really I was just having fun. I used these drawings as a basis for a series of oil paintings I called 2D/3D.
Again the motivation behind these drawings and paintings was play as opposed to consciously working toward the expression of some profound meaning. Having said that, the very act of drawing & painting has it’s own profundity. The daily pursuit of the elusive goal of expressing ideas visually provides direction in the same way that a religious discipline or philosophical framework provides meaning.
This is not a far-fetched analogy because the creation of visual art demands in-the-moment presence that is otherwise sought in meditation and other disciplines associated with religious practice. The act of drawing & painting can produce a sense of joy in the same way that meditation does in the devoted practitioner. That joy comes from overriding the over-busy mind and being present in the moment. And to be in the moment, all other worries, problems, desires and ambitions are put aside to listen to the artwork speak (or not) and be tuned to what needs to be done in order to bring it to life.More on this topic later in this post.
As with most of my paintings, I keep re-working them as long as they are available so Cross Purpose #1 (shown above right) was re-painted. In order to move away from the work as a painting and make it more of a sculpture study, Cross Purpose #2 was born as shown below.
There is a tension between paining qua painting and painting as a study for something else. Sculpture has to exist in 3 dimensions – to withstand gravity and all the slings & arrows that sculpture is heir to, so a sculpture study has to make sense as though it existed in the real world. The freedom to allow surfaces to appear & disappear without explanation is lost.
In the Fall of 2002, I began creating abstract sculptures in concrete based on the vocabulary of forms developed through the foregoing drawings & paintings. If pressed to explain the series , I would say it was an experiment in combining feminine and masculine energies, hard and soft lines, curves and angles, balance and imbalance, lightness and weight. To wax even more wordy, I would say they explore paradoxical states of being, the resolution of differences and the melding of opposites.
Below are a few examples:
The piece to the left, Conundrum, is one of the few sculptures for which I documented the process. The following images show the piece in progress.
First as shown on the right, an armature was carved out of found scrap high density polystyrene using a hot wire and saws. More about hot wire cutting is discussed in an earlier blog and more in another earlier blog. What isn’t shown is the next stage where this polystyrene armature was entirely covered with expandable wire mesh (stucco wire) which provides a surface for the concrete to grab onto. Also not shown was the rebar that was attached with this wire to strengthen the top arch.
Then the concrete was added as shown below.
The concrete used is a mix of 1:3 cement/ sand with liquid added to make it just wet enough to stick. The water is a 1:3 glue/water mixture to add strength. Later I added fibers for more strength. With the gravity-defying surfaces that need to be covered in a sculpture (ie overhangs etc.) the concrete can’t be heavy. It is hand applied, built up in layers, with each layer kept moist to allow the next layer to adhere. I would mix small amounts of concrete at a time (maybe 4-5 litres max) so that the concrete wouldn’t dry out but would last for 3-4 hours of work. It’s slow, careful work, not like pouring a pad all in one go.
The last few layers of concrete incorporated iron oxide pigments, as shown in the final image. Apparently this pigment is not good for you, so I wear thicker gloves for this portion of the work. Normally, I wear thin latex gloves to have maximum manual control.
I intensely pigmented small amounts of concrete then added them somewhat randomly to create a marbled effect. I really enjoyed the serendipidous patterns that were created – like painting with concrete in 3D. The inspiration for this approach were ancient stones in the Mayan ruins in the Yucatan peninsula. They effects of time on the stones had created beautiful patterns and colours.
I haven’t returned to purely abstract forms since 2005. After that I created abstracted representational forms as discussed in blogs 1-5. But the pull of simply working with pure form, colour & line is always there and I am currently working on a series of purely abstract paintings with no recognizable images to be seen. The debate in my head continues however, the main points of which are outlines in the next section.
Abstract Expressionism: Fashion and Art
The other night I went to see the play Red at the Vancouver Playhouse Theater. What a delight to see such great acting, dialogue, direction, & sets. Classical theater such as this is somewhat scarce these days in Vancouver as performance space is increasingly devoted to “multi-media performance”. Directors & choreographers feel obliged to throw in video, photography, sound (as opposed to music), and as much new media as possible in order to appear contemporary & relevant to the Tweet generation. Not that Red didn’t use video & stills, but they were used in such a way that they didn’t clutter up the play unnecessarily.
The play, taking place about 1968, foreshadows artist Mark Rothko’s suicide in 1970. The visual metaphor is that of the colour black, symbolizing death & destruction, gradually engulfs the colour red, symbolizing life in all its beauty & horror.
The play suggests that much of Rothko’s mental anguish was caused by his feeling of growing irrelevance as the art fashion of the day moved to Pop Art as defined by such artists as Roy Lichtenstein
Artists who follow their inner direction and volition with luck can find themselves on the crest of the latest fashion in art. Then when the tide turns and brings the next wave of young artists influenced by a new set of circumstances the formerly fashionable artists are left high & dry. As the critic Harold Rosenberg said, Rothko and his contemporaries tore down “…unlimited formal experimentation and parody and fragments of radical ideas” only to have their own ideas derided as egotistical and outdated by the next generation of artists.
The following is a quote that I wrote down without noting the source.” The rhetoric of isms and counter-isms has vexed the art world since the Second World War with new stylistic trends set up every few years to oppose whatever has become fashionable (postmodern succeeding modern, deconstruction succeeding that, and so on). The superficial theoretical pretensions of the various after-modern “schools” use cheap pronouncements cribbed from works of philosophy or literary theory. Art enjoys an oedipal energy in which creation is always destruction, usually of one’s most intimate influences.”
This Oedipal energy may not be as integral to art as it is to the culture of consumption. We are constantly reminded that we must have the newest, best and most cutting-edge of everything from electronics to hairdos to art. God forefend that we should have last-year’s version of anything. More profoundly, this is a belief that we are moving ever-forward on a trajectory of constant improvement. In this view, we are ever-striving onward & upward toward social & individual perfectability in which all wrong thinking & wrong acting will be eradicated. So the clunky cars of the 50,s, the horrendous politics of the 40’s, the economic errors of the ’20’s the stultifying social mores of the 1900’s and all the ignorance and pestilence that went before is being left ever-further behind us. And the more recent & contemporary the art movement, the more likely it is to be closer to the goal of full understanding and intelligence. It’s a view solidly ensnared in a belief that time’s arrow moves in only one direction -forward into the future.
Recent thinking is that time moves not only forward but also sideways (backwards is disputed). We are programmed (no doubt for our own sanity) to only perceive the forward motion of time, but it’s sideways mobility accounts for the frequently reported non-linear temporal events. This has implications for our attitude toward not only art but all human creative activities throughout time.
Abstract Expressionism: Meaning & Art
An excellent website called Art History Unstuffed provides a meaty discussion of Abstract Expressionism. In the section called How Abstract Expressionism Re-Defined Painting and Art: Abstract Expressionism and Meaning, the author Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette states that “The Abstract Expressionist artists translated “meaning” from subject matter to the broader and deeper intent of the word. For these artists, “meaning” had to be profound and transcendent so that art could rise above the rather minor role it played during the Thirties as handmaiden to politics.” She sums up her section of this discussion on Abstract Expressionism by saying:
“With Abstract Expression the primary moral act is the decision to paint, followed by the question of what to paint at the time of the end of painting. In a world that has experienced an all engulfing war and a horrifying holocaust and a brilliant blast of annihilating light, painting becomes a moral activity, one of the last possible ethical gestures. Abstract Expressionism was an art of pure idea, considered to be sublime, even transcendent and thus reconnected with the early Romantic tradition of landscape painting in America. Nineteenth century American painting had sough God in Nature, but in a universe that had be denaturalized and had been scourged of God, the only transcendence or saving grace was art itself, the last refuge of godliness.”
On the one hand, this assumption appears to be the epitome of hubris – the idea that we can attain spiritual transcendence by playing with colour & form is surely a delusion. And it surely betrays arrogance and massive ego to assume that the arduous discipline necessary to find God, as taught by the world’s major religions over thousands of years, can be cheerfully circumvented by picking up a paintbrush and going at it.
On the other hand, as Barnett Newman said, “The artist expresses in a work of art an aesthetic idea which is innovate and eternal.” This idea captures the essence of abstraction as the artist seeks to remove all vestiges of identification with a particular place & time and creates a work that is universal. In this there is definitely an element of spiritual transcendence and in this way, art (whether Romantic landscape or Abstract Expressionist) can act as a bridge between the spiritual and the worldly.
But to imagine that one artistic approach, such as Abstract Expressionism, can replace the search for spiritual enlightenment is highly suspect, especially since some of its most famous practitioners found more solace in the bottle than in their work. And to imagine that we can replace God with Art is like assuming we can replace food with a cookbook.
Art, like yoga, prayer and other disciplines can lead toward spirituality, but surely the guidance of tried & true religious practices is needed. Art alone is too amorphous.
After having explored the Running Man theme for many years, it was time to explore my inner woman in sculptural form. So as a counterpoint to the Running Man series, I developed a Dancing Woman series. The first piece in the series was a maquette called the Three Graces.
This piece was a further effort to explore the problem of depicting women in art without succumbing to stereotyping about Beauty, the Eternal Woman and the rest of it. I discuss this in another blog that includes a lino print & oil painting version of the Three Graces but will touch on on this issue later in this blog.
Images of The Three Graces goes back to antiquity. Wikipedia says in Greek mythology, the Graces ordinarily numbered three, from youngest to oldest: “Splendor”, “Mirth” and “Good Cheer”.
In 1482 Sandro Botticelli included Three graces in his painting Primavera
Then there is the famous oil painting by Italian painter, Raphael, who in turn was inspired by a ruined Roman marble statue in Siena shown below.
More recent sculptors have also used the Three Graces as a subject. Below is Antonio Canova’s (1757 – 1822) version. He was an Italian sculptor who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh. The epitome of the neoclassical style, his work marked a return to classical refinement.
Now, my version of The Three Graces is the very opposite of delicately rendered nude flesh for reasons I have expanded on elsewhere. Don’t misunderstand me – I am breathless with admiration for the technical ability of those sculptors who were able to take stone and turn it into a timeless work of art. But that was then and this is now. The problem for contemporary artists is that the female form has been used so often that it has become a cultural icon used to convey shallow, sentimental ideas about women that are conventional and formulaic. This is why my version of the graceful trio is made from flat planes to create monumental, powerful angular figures. This seems closer to the original conception of the Graces as goddesses of “Splendor”, “Mirth” and “Good Cheer.
I would very much like an opportunity to create my version of The Three Graces in full scale at some point. The final size should be at least 2 m x 2m x 2m. As it would be a large and expensive sculpture to make for exhibition and sale on spec, I’ve shelved it until an opportunity presents itself.
Speaking of nude women in art, I was reminded of work done in this area by the Guerilla Girls. In 1989, this artists’ collective was asked to design a billboard for the Public Art Fund (PAF) in New York. They conducted a “weenie count” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, comparing the number of nude males to nude females in the artworks on display. The results were very “revealing” and were used in the design they submitted shown below.
The PAF said the design wasn’t clear enough (????) and rejected it. The Guerilla Girls rented advertising space on NYC buses and ran it themselves, until the bus company canceled their lease, saying that the image, based on Ingres’ famous Odalisque, was too suggestive and that the figure appeared to have more than a fan in her hand.
The concept behind this poster was explored in the early 1970’s in a collection of essays, later televised, called Ways of Seeing, edited by John Berger. The essays raise questions about hidden ideologies in visual images. One essay focuses particularly on the female nude as a subject for art which depicts women as a subject of male idealisation or desire rather than as herself . An example is Venus & Cupid by Lely shown below.
This portrait of his mistress was commissioned by Charles the Second. It shows her passively looking at the spectator staring at her naked. Berger calls her expression “…a sign of her submission to the owner’s feelings or demands.”
Berger contrasts this Western tradition of painting languid nudes to non-european traditions, such as Indian, African & Pre-Columbian art where “…nakedness is never supine in this way.”
The question posed on the Guerilla Girl’s website is: DO YOU THINK THINGS HAVE GOTTEN BETTER SINCE OUR FIRST COUNT IN 1989? As a sculptor, I am naturally interested in how often women are successful in sculpture & public art competitions or how well they are represented in exhibitions and galleries. So to answer the Guerrilla Girls’ question, I checked “sculpture” on Wikipedia and did a back-of-envelope gender analysis of the sculptors represented there. Only about 5% of the artists mentioned are women in what should be a progressive source of information on sculpture. An apologist might say that women don’t want to be sculptors because it’s too difficult for them, or they are not strong enough or something along those lines. For instance, when I was at a sculpture symposium in China, I asked why there were virtually no Chinese women sculptors among the 60 or so male sculptors participating. The response I got from male sculptors was that sculpture is dirty work & women don’t want to do it. A more likely scenario is that China, like most of the world, discriminates against female sculptors in terms of acceptance for sculpture training and granting of commissions. If in fact there are fewer female than male sculptors per capita in the West, it would be my suspicion that women chose another field because sculpture has remained a macho preserve. And if there are as many female sculptors as male, there is clearly a strong gender bias at work in terms of getting work & recognition.
Though the Guerilla Girls are still very much the “conscience of the art world” I hadn’t seen any sign of them in my town of Vancouver for decades. I was reminded about their artwork by an exhibition of feminist art at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris that featured them. Another of their brilliant and biting pieces is the following:
I just love their work and wish I could see more of it. The Vancouver art scene tends toward works that are careful not to actually take a stance on any identifiable issues or real-world problems. An artist may allude to an issue, preferably taking an obscure approach that could not be said to be presenting a point of view, but using art to clearly present an opinion is not really considered to be in very good taste. That’s why re-visiting the Guerrilla Girls is such a breath of fresh air.
To continue my exploration of the female form, I developed another image into a maquette that has been realized in steel, called Anima shown below.
This maquette was an homage to Picasso’s wonderful painting, Two Women Running on the Beach (The Race) (1922).
I loved the monumental qualities of the women, their strength, freedom of movement and obvious joy. It was fun to try to capture these qualities in intersecting flat planes.
In collaboration with my partner, Colin Race, the 13″ high maquette was translated into a 68″ high sculpture (5+ times as big) shown below. To scale the model up, I outlined each part & used a pantograph to increase the scale. Due to the limits of my cheap pantograph and workspace, I seem to remember I had to increase the scale by 2.5 then increase those drawings again by 2.5. I drew each part on cardboard then attached all the pieces together as a rough model to see if they would fit. To construct it in steel, we built the skirt first which created a stable base for attaching the upper body & legs. Due to small cutting errors, the dimensions of the original carboard templates had to be modified as the sculpture progressed. Unfortunately, it didn’t occur to me to photo-document the process at the time. The finished sculpture was exhibited in the Lake Oswego “Gallery Without Walls” sculpture exhibition in Oregon from 2009-2011.
This experiment was quite successful, except that I wanted to leave the surface in polished mild steel with a clear finish as shown above. I spent hours researching a finish that would prevent rust & not yellow, or peel off. I found all kinds of extravagant claims for aliphatic urethane coatings that were alleged to prevent mild steel from rusting and last forever. So we used oiled & pickled mild steel, polished the picking off and clear coated Anima I with Aliphatic Urethane. But the steel started to rust underneath the clear coat within a few months of the rainy season. The clear coat was lasting well, but rust is almost impossible to eradicate, and it showed through the clear coat. We ended up having the urethane media blasted off and re-finished the sculpture with a silver powder coat.
The finish is not as silvery as I had hoped (though above photo taken on a rainy day), but it still looks great and is a lasting finish. The only way to get a really silver finish is by using stainless steel, and I can’t afford it for spec sculptures.
The Anima I design presented fabrication challenges as all the intersections were ground smooth which took a lot of difficult, labour intensive work. So the design for Anima II was made up of cubes, rather than intersecting planes. It was also away to test our fabrication capability for the eventual construction of my design for The Three Graces at the beginning of this blog. I submitted the drawing of Anima II shown below to a call for public art in Bremerton Washington and the drawing was accepted for a commission.
I used the same skirt design as Anima I, which again provided a stable base for constructing the legs and upper body. I didn’t make a cardboard model, but just waded in, using the cardboard templates from Anima I as a guide. But they were soon useless so I ended up using big sheets of tracing paper to create a pattern for each piece of steel. It was sort of like designing pattern pieces for making a dress.
As you can see from the caption, at the time of this submission I still wasn’t aware that no clear coat can be made to adhere well to bare steel, There just isn’t enough body for it to work. So I hadn’t factored into the budget getting the piece powder-coated.
Because the sculpture would be in a seaside location, I was advised to use a zinc-rich primer which is a very dark grey. The silver colour coat was not opaque enough to completely cover the primer, so the finish is less silvery than I had wished. Live & learn. If I were to do another piece like this in future, I would get it media blasted and spray-painted as you can keep adding layers of paint until satisfied. With powder coating, you can only add 2-3 coats max (primer, colour & clearcoat).
Not having worked in Washington before, I was also not aware that there would be sales taxes. And at about this time, the US border suddenly tightened up and we could no longer talk our way through without paying a brokerage fee and getting our Ford Ranger Pick-up registered as a Standard Carrier with the National Motor Freight Traffic Association. If it wasn’t such a waste of time, it would be funny to see us in our little red pick-up with some odd sculpture in the bed lined up for hours with rows of giant semis. Then there are more fees to actually get across the border.
The paperwork alone takes so much time away from doing any actual artwork that we now avoid bringing any sculptures into the US. We used to exhibit in many of the shows just across the border and really enjoyed meeting all the sculptors & sculpture-philes to the south. Just one small illustration of the many ways in which the new Security State is strangling the culture.
The commission price was quite small so with all of these additional costs and the fact that Anima II took a lot more work that I had optimistically estimated, we pretty well paid Bremerton to let us install the sculpture in their downtown Entertainment District.
To add insult to injury, the reception from the man-on-the-street during installation was lukewarm. Apparently there were differences of opinion in the community as to whether or not the City should be cluttering up the streets with public art.
Comments in the local newspaper’s online Letters to the Editor were another bummer.
Here’s a sampling of the 62 mostly negative comments posted at the Kitsap Sun in response to the piece:
“Ugly, not necessary and from a Canadian artist. What a joke.”
“Can someone please explain to me why 1% of the money for the city is going to such frivolous things as this when we cannot even afford to keep the city pool open unless the YMCA steps up and operates it.? I find it absurd that we are spending even the smallest amount of money on these eye sores while important things in the community are going down the drain! This is a perfect example, in my opinion, of money being spent poorly and why the city cannot become financially stable.”
“This thing looks like a collection of re-folded cardboard boxes all glued together…..Another example of “artsy-fartsy” that would tempt any red-blooded garbage collector to pick up and haul away if not for its weight. A few more of these downtown abominations and acid-heads from all over will be coming to visit.”
“What’s next for ‘art’ in Bremerton? Is some sculptor going to weld together some rusty cogwheels and old corset stays and then try to tell us it’s a greater piece of art than Michelangelo’s ‘David’? Let’s try to have someone design some art for Bremerton and obtain approval from our city officials to purchase it during times when it’s not ‘happy hour’.”
“I am thinking about putting my old side by side washer & dryer with an old pc monitor on top & call it the “Seeing Wash & Dry Creature”,it will be FREE & I can deliver right there on a corner side-walk.I think this could contribute to the Artsy Town.”
“Ok–I know what will be more appropriate & will fit the Arts–let me keep this “clean” so it does not get removed & PLEASE NOTE this is NOT my idea as I am a devout man of religious manipulation.-Ok–Here goes–without being too vulgar——A GIANT Phallus/Shaft next to the B.u.t.t. Hole—I ask God to Forgive me as my thought could be sinful & be frowned on by the community & religious clans–HA-!!!”
On top of all that, the local community began to drape the sculpture in clothes. The local Arts Council felt it was positive interaction and even the Mayor checked in with me as to whether or not I was offended by this. I said that
once a sculpture is out in the community, I no longer feel wedded to the original concept and if this is the way the community chooses to take ownership of the piece, so be it.
Having said that, I am not comfortable with this trend, and I have seen great sculptures in Seattle that people drape in clothes. Maybe this is community involvement or maybe this is a fundamental disrespect for art.
We traveled to Bremerton one last time to maintain the sculpture and removed not only the accessories shown here, but a sandwich-board advertising local fundraising activities. The sculpture had graduated from mannequin to kiosk. While we were cleaning the sculpture, people were waiting in a car for us to leave so they could replace their advertising.
In addition to its advertising function, the sculpture was serving as part of a skateboard obstacle course and there were rubber skid marks up the skirt. We tried everything to remove them and finally hit on toothpaste! for future reference, Crest with Flouride does the trick.
Like all of my experiments in art, Bremerton was a learning experience – mostly on how to combine artistic sensitivity with a rhinoceros-like hide.
The biggest irony about its reception is the fact that the Anima theme was meant to convey a positive message. As quoted in the Kitsap Sun:
“It’s a strong piece about optimism,” Jamieson said. “I hope people will get a feeling of optimism and hope. We’re going into the future with our heads held high and a bright outlook.”
Well, I didn’t exactly say that but that was the gist of it.
Anima is about the unconscious or true inner self of an individual, as opposed to the persona or outer aspect of the personality. The sculpture is a celebration of the female principle, depicted using flat planes in a cubist/constructivist style to express strength. Anima also refers to the joy and momentum that I was seeking to express in steel.
As I said the series of female figures was designed as a counterweight to the earlier Running Man series. That series was a social critique and I have come to realize that in any walk of life it is easier to critique than to propose an alternative. Many artists believe their artwork should hold a mirror up to the public showing people the way things really are and shocking them out of their complacency. The question is what we should be reflecting. If we believe life is a valley of tears and the world is heading for hell in a hand-basket, this is what we will tend to reflect. If we believe that most people are basically good and that humans have the innate capability to snatch civilization from the jaws of savagery, this is what we will reflect in our art. Now the moral question: does the artist have any obligation to present one view rather than the other?
I just finished reading Cloud Atlas, David Mitchell’s brilliant novel about a future distopia – a purely predatory world that consumes itself. “In an individual, selfishness uglifies the soul; for the human species, selfishness is extinction.” He wraps up the novel by saying:
“If we believe that humanity may transcend tooth & claw, if we believe divers races & creeds can share this world…if we believe leaders must be just, violence muzzled, power accountable & the riches of the Earth & its Oceans shared equitably, such a world will come to pass.”
The Personal is the Political
The other day I received this comment about my blog :
“The following time I read a blog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I imply, I know it was my choice to learn, but I actually thought youd have something attention-grabbing to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about one thing that you can repair in case you werent too busy in search of attention”.
My first response was, “Hey Crankypants! If you want to hear about how great everything is, just read the corporate media.”
My second response was to take this comment as yet another interesting piece of input on this blog. For me, blogging is just another vehicle for making art, and in this case, the artwork entails organizing and presenting the work of the last 40 years as themes and seeing how they weave together, sort of like a graphic autobiography. In truth, I could take each segment & present it in a completely different way, depending on how I feel about the subject.
For instance, as an artist, I can interpret my work from an objective or deeply personal perspective; I can think of it in terms of the forms created, the idea that motivated it or the ideas that evolved as the work progressed & I realized what it was really about. Artists’ explanations for what they are doing will of necessity only be part of the story as artists edit their explanations to suit the target audience. Is the audience looking for artspeak or words spoken from the heart? Are they sophisticated artophiles or philistines? A penny-pinching municipal government or deep-pocketed collector?
Since I have no idea who is reading this blog or why, I have absolute freedom to present my work according to whim. I could and may re-write all the blogs and re-arrange the images to present some other theme in the future. It’s an interesting vehicle, the net.
Last night I saw the film,Surviving Progress. Though many of the film’s points were ones I am aware of, its most important message was that debt is the driving force behind the world’s current economic, social & ecological crises. As apostate Wall Street bankers and IMF bureaucrats explained, debt is the force behind: destruction of the world’s most crucial ecosystems; poverty and social upheaval in developing countries; and the likely end of civilization as we know it.
In pre-capitalist societies, debt was owed to the state rather than private individuals, so when the burden of debt for most of its citizens became unreasonable, in the interests of avoiding revolution the rulers would forgive all debt, ride out the consequences & start afresh. With capitalism, however, debt has concentrated in the hands of 10% of the world’s private individuals, the financial oligarchy, and they do not have any interest in the health or even continuation of society as a whole. As a class they would rather destroy the planet than give up their self-interest.
Though the financial oligarchy has a great deal of power, those of us with surviving democracies do have the means to fight back through the political process. As Michael Moore says, “we’re a democracy – we can pass any laws we want!” Surviving Progress clearly advocates that we elect rulers willing to cancel debt in order to save civilization rather than the financial oligarchy.
The film reminded me of some drawings I did about 12 years ago on this theme. The drawings were in the form of bills for an organization called Artmoney, an international art project presenting a global, alternative currency: “Artmoney”. Artmoney is made of original art, by artists around the world. My contribution was in the form of drawings of 3 bills showing the evolution of a running man into corporate man – or the man who runs things.
The motto on each bill “This is the way the world will end” is an embarrassing misquote from the poem The Hollow Men by T. S. Eliot. The final stanza may be the most quoted of all of Eliot’s poetry;
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.
I also used this motto carved around the base of a piece called Special Cases in 1999. As described in more detail in my blog #6: On Corporate Power, this sculpture is about Running Man in his bureaucratic context – ensuring that the dominant paradigm – that economic demands must always take precedence over over social or ecological needs – prevails. This was the second version of the piece.
There was only one aspect of Surviving Progress that was weak and that was the comments on Economics. David Suzuki called Economics “a form of brain damage”, which is just silly.
It got a laugh and I can understand the temptation to ridicule a discipline that has been distorted and misused to serve the cult of consumerism. When arguably one of the worst Canadian Prime Ministers in history is an Economist, it besmirches the field. Yes, I would argue that Stephen Harper is even more deluded than MacKenzie-King, that other nasty Conservative who, when he wasn’t sending European Jews back to certain death, was communing with the spirit of his dear departed Mother.
But Economics is an intellectual discipline like any other, and the fact that it has been misused to serve nefarious ends does not negate it as a field of study. Every discipline can be applied to foul purposes or fair as evinced by the use of Physics to develop the atomic bomb, or Biology to develop GMO foods. As in all disciplines, it is the assumptions behind the thinking that result in a progressive or regressive outcome. When people refer disparagingly to Economics as the source of our current financial, social & ecological crises, they are referring to a more recent and highly influential Economic philosophy that is characterized as The Chicago School. As described in Wikipedia, Chicago macroeconomic theory rejected Keynesianism in favor of monetarism until the mid 1970s, when it turned to new classical macroeconomics heavily based on the concept of rational expectations. The Chicago School, which advocates for unfettered free markets and little government intervention , came under attack in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–2010. The school has been blamed for growing income inequality in the United States.An alternative economic perspectivesuggests that the Chicago School economists are “the product of a Dark Age of macroeconomics in which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten.”
My father, the late Dr. Stuart Jamieson, was a an economist who applied his hard-won , on-the -ground knowledge to improving the lives of working people. As a Keynesian and Labour Economist, he supported the rights of workers to organize and improve their negotiating position with the owners of the means of production.
Like many progressives, Stuart Jamieson’s faith in the union movement was shaken by events in the early 1980’s in British Columbia. A draconian far-right Social Credit government, bent on removing the social safety net for everyone except those who didn’t need it, had managed to galvanize the many opposing factions into a unified force. But on the eve of a threatened general strike, union leader Jack Munroe struck a deal with the government that protected workers and left the poor, sick, disabled & otherwise disadvantaged to fight for themselves.
Disillusioned with the union movement and the potential for Economics to solve real-world problems, Jamieson turned to direct action. He joined the movement to save the old-growth forests in Clayquot Sound on Vancouver Island from timber harvesting and was arrested for blocking access to logging trucks. In his late eighties, he was fitted with an electronic monitoring ankle bracelet and placed under house arrest at his home on Bowen Island.
Proto-Economist Karl Marx is described as one of the most influential figures in human history and in a 1999 BBC poll was voted the “thinker of the millennium” by people from around the world. He argued that accumulation of capital shapes the social system and that social change was about conflict between opposing interests driven, in the background, by economic forces. He theorized that human history began with free, productive and creative work that was over time coerced and de-humanised, a trend most apparent under capitalism. Marx criticised utopian socialists, arguing that small scale socialistic communities would be bound to marginalisation and poverty, and that only a large scale change in the economic system can bring about real change.
Clearly the discipline of Economics began as a tool for far-sighted, socially conscious thinkers but has been hijacked by regressive hacks who have provided a rationale for rule by the current financial oligarchy. So to characterize the study of how wealth is distributed as “brain damage” is to condemn a useful analytical tool because it has been misapplied. David Suzuki tries to amend his gaffe in the December issue of the local free magazine Common Ground. Their December issue responds to many of the issues raised in Surviving Progress and is one of their recent best.
In his article Suzuki suggests that Economics can address the narrow focus of the dominant economic model by putting a value on natural capital such as wetlands and forests. He reinforces this suggestion by noting that “These economic benefits have even received the attention of the World Bank, which plans to assist countries in tracking natural capital assets and including them in development plans, in the same way we track other wealth using the GDP index”. Yikes Dave! I bet they are tracking natural assets the better to turn them into wealth for transnational corporations.
As someone said, this is the idea of using capitalism to fix capitalism. It’s the preferred path for the faint of heart who want to tinker with the edges of the system but leave the system itself intact.
Other ideas in this ish of Common Ground are more practical. The article by by John Restakis, Beyond the Camps: Occupation and the Co-op Connection, provides a more practical approach to change that can be activated by ordinary people right now. John Restakis is executive director of the BC Co-operative Association and author of Humanizing the Economy – Co-operatives in the Age of Capital. He advocates participation in the co-operative movement which has a long history in Canada. As he says, “we have the experience of 170 years of co-operation to see that the tenets of democracy can be applied to economics just as in politics and that they work. It is this heritage of economic democracy that is invaluable to the movement that so ardently seeks an alternative to the status quo”.
As examples he points to the survival rate of co-ops which is double that of conventional businesses. He highlights how credit unions, by responding to the actual needs of their members, didn’t engage in the fraudulent financial speculations that bankrupted the economy and had no need of massive public bailouts. He suggests that shifting our money from banks to credit unions is something concrete everyone can do. Co-ops reduce inequality on a global level because fair trade, based on the return of profits to small producers through their co-ops, isn’t based on the extraction of profit by exploiting the weak. And at a time of global economic recession, the experience of the recovered factory co-ops of Argentina, Uruguay and elsewhere shows how workers and the communities in which they live can take back control of shuttered factories and provide a living for workers and their families.
Forerunner to the current left of center BC political party, the NDP was the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation or CCF. Founded in 1932 in it was an aggregation of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups,with a number of goals, including: public ownership of key industries; universal pensions; universal health care; children’s allowances; unemployment insurance; workers compensation. It also stated that “No CCF Government will rest content until it has eradicated capitalism and put into operation the full programme of socialized planning which will lead to the establishment in Canada of the Co-operative Commonwealth.” In 1939 and again in 1941, my grandmother, Laura Jamieson, was the first CCF MLA elected west of Main Street in Vancouver Center. In 1944, the CCF formed the first socialist government in North America in Saskatchewan but during the Cold War, it was accused of having communist leanings. The party moved to address these accusations in 1956, by replacing its original goals with more moderate ones and paving the way to become the NDP.
The point is that BC has roots in the cooperative movement and this philosophy can provide an alternative to the capitalist system.
I have been carving away on my hunk of recycled Styrofoam (polystyrene) and The Singer is beginning to emerge. Here is its present state of completion.
It has been very interesting creating this blog recording progress on this piece and previous works. I have had many comments on my blogs, many of them appreciative of the information provided. Some commentators have requested that I provide more detailed information about the process but I have to clarify that I am a working artist and my priority is my artwork. I am not in the business of writing how-to manuals. That said, if anyone has a specific question, I am happy to do my best to answer it. I’m just not willing to provide a detailed account of my fabrication process without knowing what specific information will be useful to others.
Speaking of my blog, I have to admit to being a little dumfounded by many of the comments I have received. Some of them are simply incomprehensible and I can only assume that they are scripts generated by a robot & sent out to every website for some obscure purpose. Here are samples of comments that arrived today & yesterday ostensibly about my blog “Musings-Maquettes-on-Frogs:
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I am told anyone who has a website gets this stuff. Perhaps the point is to generate more traffic to their site, but I am puzzled as to how sites for Uggs, sexcams, Tummy Tucks, LA Bail Bonds or any of the other myriad sites that send me comments benefit by sending comments to an artist describing her fairly idiosyncratic working process! The internet moves in mysterious ways and I am willing to take the good with the bad. It is unfortunate, however, that this wonderful global resource is abused by self-interest. It is yet another tragedy of the common where self-interest ultimately depletes a shared resource.
Undaunted, I return to the topic of this blog – progress on The Singer. In earlier blogs on this topic musings-maquet…-back-to-birds ; more-on-birds and on birds, I described the methods I was using to cut the polystyrene and remove dust. I neglected to mention the way I scaled up the original 20″ (50.8 cm) plaster maquette to create the 90″ (228.6 cm) polystyrene armature. First I marked off the x horizontal axis on the wooden base of the maquette at 1/2″ intervals and gave each interval a number from 1-26. Then I marked off the y horizontal axis on the wooden base of the maquette at 1/2″ intervals and gave each interval a letter from a-z. Then my partner built a measuring frame for the maquette to show the vertical z axis, I marked it off at 1/2 ” intervals and gave each interval a roman numeral from i – XL.
To carve the final work at a scale of 1:4.5, I marked off the x horizontal axis on the wooden base of the styrofoam piece at 2.25″ intervals and gave each interval a number from 1-26. Then I marked off the y horizontal axis on the wooden base of the styrofoam piece at 2.25″ intervals and gave each interval a letter from a-z. Below shows a corner of the base with the intervals.
Then my partner built a measuring frame for the styrofoam piece to show the vertical z axis, and I marked it off at 2.25″ intervals and gave each interval a roman numeral from i – XL. The image below shows the top corner of the measuring large frame. On the cross bar I added the same intervals as on the base to assist in measuring a straight line from top to bottom. Intervals have both letters of the alphabet and numbers so that the vertical measure can be used on both the x & y axis. The vertical measure closely fits the base of the piece and is supported on a two pieces of 1/2″ x 8″ wood.
Using this system I could constantly refer to measurements on the maquette in order to make cuts to scale on the final work.
Though this system has worked well, it is cumbersome as I am constantly moving the vertical measure around. The classical way of scaling up a sculpture is to use the point system, where a number of points are placed on the maquette and the location of these points are reproduced to scale on the final work. Perhaps with more carving experience I will be able to visualize where points on my maquette should be on my final work. But at present I am astounded by how far off the actual measure I am when I eyeball it.
If anyone out there has come up with a more elegant system for scaling up sculptures from maqutte to final size, (not including sending the work out to a pricey CNC shop) I’d love to hear about it.
In earlier blogs I also talked about dust control and our ugly but effective extraction system. I am also including a photo of myself in full styro-dust protection gear. I bought a painters’ paper overall for the elasticized wrist, ankles & hood as the small particles end up glued to every inch of me. I put on this full get-up for using the sander for finer work. But the paper overalls rip so I just wear a regular cloth overall & put elastic bands around my wrists & ankles to keep particles out of the overall and wear a shower cap to keep styro dust out of my hair.
This photo may offer a clue as to why there are so few female sculptors.
Usually I just wear an overall, plastic cap & googles but put on the full gear for using the sander. Who knows what inhaling these fine particles will do to you.
This sculpture is progressing slowly because I can only do a few hours of work a day before I start to make mistakes. There is no rush however as I still don’t have a home for the final product. I will most likely use the large styrofoam piece as an armature and coat the surface with 2-3″ of concrete which will probably be tinted with integral pigments. It would weigh a ton and be difficult to move, so if possible I would like to apply the concrete coating where the sculpture is to be installed. It could be a fun public participation piece where from day to day people could watch the armature turn into a concrete sculpture and talk to me about the process. This type of interaction is a great way for people to learn about & appreciate the art of sculpture.
Conversely, if a bigger budget could be found, I would finish the surface in plaster and have it cast in bronze. I’ve applied for a couple of commissions and not been successful, but I’ll finish the armature and keep looking. If anyone out there knows of someone looking for an 8 foot (250 cm) singing bird-person, let me know.
Daily, hourly & minute by minute, we are deluged by propaganda for the consumer society and free-market capitalism. What is the alternative? Some believe that the problem is restrictions on our freedom and that without them society would be a better place. For instance, at the Occupy Vancouver rally & march there were speakers, such as the raw milk lobby (a surprisingly vocal and well organized group) who argued that “no one should be able to tell me what I can put into my body”. This is the voice of freedom from authority, one aspect of the anarchist persuasion, which presents itself as an alternative to the current system.
As an artist, I’ve been interested in the attraction of anarchy to some segments of society. I became aware that there was a deep undercurrent of undirected anger in a portion of the population that lashes out at anything that happens to be in its way. This happened during the recent Stanley Cup riot in Vancouver and this has happened to my own artworks on display in the public realm. Sculptures that I have spent months or even a year fabricating, and that have been enjoyed by the whole community have been trashed by this infantile, egotistical rage. Vandals have even brought tools for the express purpose of wrecking my artwork. My sculptures feel like a part of me, like my children, and I abandon them to their fate on the streets with trepidation. When they are attacked, I feel it personally.
As an artist, the best way to deal with personal pain is through my art practice, so a mini-series in the Running Man theme explored the phenomenon of vandalism and the public realm. The piece shown below, called War of All, was an attempt to understand the anger and capture its energy. It was also an opportunity to muse on the idea of anarchy. The opposite of anarchy is governance and the title of this piece refers to “the war of all against all,” the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence in the state of nature or life without government.
There seems to be a general misunderstanding about the philosophy of anarchy, certainly among the elites who oppose any challenge to the status quo. But many self-styled anarchists may not have investigated the background to this philosophy and its many conflicting beliefs.
Wikipedia describes Anarchism as “generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be immoral or alternatively as opposing authority in the conduct of human relations…. Anarchists advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations.”
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the French philosopher who declared that “property is theft” is often called the founder of modern anarchist theory. Proudhon favored workers’ associations or co-operatives, and considered that social revolution could be achieved in a peaceful manner. Though Proudhon’s arguments against entitlement to land and capital make sense, his anti-state position may not be as relevant today since corporations are more powerful than governments.
At the other end of the anarchy spectrum is the the egoist form of individualist anarchism, which supports the individual doing exactly what he pleases – taking no notice of God, state, or moral rules. Max Stirner was a German philosopher, who ranks as one of the literary fathers of nihilism, existentialism, post-modernism and individualist anarchism. Some adherents to this school of thought have found self-expression in crime and violence. Individualist anarchists also gave rise to the modern movement of anarcho-capitalism with absolutist views of human rights and rejection of the state.
Illegalism is another outgrowth of individualist anarchism. Illegalists usually do not seek a moral basis for their actions, recognizing only the reality of “might” rather than “right”. For the most part, illegal acts are done simply to satisfy personal desires, not for some greater ideal. This seems to be the philosophical home of many self-defined anarchists. Framed as personal direct action against exploiters & the system, this is the rationale for spray-painting graffiti on public buildings & destroying installations in the public realm, from bus shelters & public toilets to my sculptures. Though there is a huge differences between creating guerrilla art and destroying public art, the motivation is similar and the line between the two is blurred.
I have used layers of graffiti as a background for War of All because the issue of graffiti sums up so many social contradictions. Graffiti artists and groups excluded from the political mainstream argue that they use graffiti as a tool to spread their point of view. They point out that they do not have the money – or sometimes the desire – to buy advertising to get their message across, and that the ruling class or establishment control the mainstream press and other avenues of expression, systematically excluding radical/alternative points of view.
While graffiti on public or private property can be looked at as a political act or an expression of creativity, most of it is garbage – the equivalent of dumping McDonald’s wrappers on the sidewalk. And the co-opting of graffiti by commercial culture is a widespread message that using the public realm to express your individual ego (whether a creative or destructive urge) is very cool & cutting edge. So the five drunk guys who come across one of my sculptures downtown in the wee hours think it is hip to break it apart. Do they figure that because my piece was accepted by the municipality for the site, this makes the artwork part of the system and therefore fair game? Probably they don’t think at all.
Another work from the Running Man series on the sub-theme of anarchy & graffiti is called Do Not Go Quietly.
I can’t remember why it has that title, but it again tries to capture the anger & rebelliousness that expresses itself most often in tagging & other vandalism. The wooden figures are absences in that they act under cover of darkness and have no recognizable goals or objectives.
I’m all in favour of goals & objectives. I don’t buy the party line given by everyone from the art establishment to my artist friends that art should not address political or moral issues. The curse of postmodernism has been the universal acceptance of the idea that artists shouldn’t have ideas. Having opinions or otherwise expressing values is soooo didactic!! One must eschew meta-narratives and simply be a conduit for the flotsam & jetsom of cultural tides. The real artist is a blank canvas with no point of view, because points of view are so last century, back when people believed in the glorious potential of the human race and look where that got us – WWs I & II!
But I do have ideas and I’m an artist, so no matter how unfashionable it is, I like to express them in my work. To the right is a piece called Conversionabout the transformation of ecological into economic wealth, in this case the logging of trees to create wealth. I’ve used graffiti as a background to indicate that the destruction of forests (habitat for many species) for the economic benefit of the human species is also vandalism.
The level of logging carried out in the province of British Columbia where I live is ecologically, socially & economically unsustainable. Trees are a vital part of watershed ecosystems and if too many are removed the system breaks down. Trees are being cut faster than they can grow so inevitably large numbers of loggers will be out of work & logging towns abandoned. The logging companies will take out as many trees as they can before they are all gone, then simply re-invest elsewhere, leaving BC economically depressed.
Another indicator species of unsustainable human activity are fish. In Fishery, I have again used the graffiti motif, except this time, the tags are those of corporate logos.
Big business gets to splash its tags in multi-million dollar advertisements in all media while the less powerful use graffiti. All economic wealth originates from the earth and its bounty of water, air, plants, animals and minerals. real wealth is in the health of these resources, not in the consumer items that the destruction of these resources buys.
Anarchy and Occupy Vancouver
Like everyone else, I’m fascinated by the Occupy Vancouver movement and the many similar protests happening around the globe. The stated goals of Occupy Vancouver on its website are:
“to transform the unequal, unfair, and growing disparity in the distribution of power and wealth in our city and around the globe. We challenge corporate greed, corruption, and the collusion between corporate power and government. We oppose systemic inequality, militarization, environmental destruction, and the erosion of civil liberties and human rights. We seek economic security, genuine equality, and the protection of the environment for all.”
There is much discussion in the media on the fact that Occupy Vancouver like all the other protests, are leaderless and do not provide a plan for achieving their stated goals. The corporate media calls the protestors spoiled children who do not appreciate how good they have it (in other words, how well the capitalist system has served us here in Vancouver). Steeped as they are in the philosophy of self-interest, they cannot imagine that others are motivated by concern for those living in poverty and despair in Vancouver and most other North American cities. The occupiers and their sympathizers understand that in the win/lose world of unrestricted free-enterprise, the creation of poverty is a necessary component of the system. Wealth is systematically removed from less aggressive or advantaged groups, regions and nations in order to concentrate in the hands of a few.
Occupy Vancouver will be challenged by the individualist anarchists who want their personal issues addressed and are not willing to go through the difficult process of aggregating interests and reaching consensus. On marches we chant “The people, united, will never be defeated”, and the challenge is to find union. The 1% and their lackeys are of course united behind the goal of maintaining the status quo until they have managed to acquire all of the world’s remaining wealth. They differ only on who gets how much. The 99% not only want their fair share of the pie, they want to prevent & reverse the growing gap between rich & poor, climate change, mass species extinction, pollution of water soil & air, homelessness, inequality, militarization, tyranny, corruption, moral decay, the breakdown of communities and a host of other ills.
Looking more closely, the common denominator in all these ills is consumerism and the global economy. What if everyone opted out of the global consumer culture – how would that look?
reduce, re-use recycle
trade, barter, swap
buy nothing but absolute necessities
buy local – nothing shipped more than 100 miles
wear no brand logos
buy from co-ops
grow your own
bike, walk, take transit – don’t buy gas
to travel don’t fly, take the bus or train
bank at a credit union
The bottom line is, we have a democratic system in place here – this isn’t Tunisia or Libya. In recognition of the fact that folks in these countries are willing to lay down their lives to resist tyranny, the least we can do is exercise our franchise. The democratic system isn’t working and most people’s needs are not addressed because the corporate media convince voters not to vote in their own interests or not to vote at all. Successful political parties are indebted to donors with deep pockets and act to benefit them. The most powerful action we can take is to vote for candidates who recognize & oppose the subversion of democracy through corporate power. We can get involved in political parties that represent the 99% & push for strong platforms that limit the power of the 1%.
I was down at the Occupy Vancouver march on Saturday – it was such a lovely day for a demo. Given the world-wide focus on corporate power and the abuses thereof, I think it’s time to resurrect Running Man.
I worked with the Running Man image exclusively from about 1997-2002. This series, using an image of a man running headlong into the future and oblivious to the past, explores the ideas and assumptions behind the corporate free-enterprise paradigm, consumerism and the impacts of these ideas on society, economy and environment. The Running Man image is also a vehicle to explore the inner workings of individuals who are pressured into participating in relationships of dominance and ruthless competition. These individuals are always in a hurry, rushing toward their own and the planet’s demise. They must avoid personal attachments that might jeopardize the struggle to get ahead so personal relationships are neglected in favour of business acquaintances.
Running Man sometimes becomes aware of the emptiness of his inner life but the feeling soon passes as the strength of his ideological commitment to the accumulation of wealth reasserts itself. A wonderful French film in the Vancouver Film Festival called My Piece of the Pie perfectly embodies the character of Running Man . This film was especially powerful because it did not follow the usual Hollywood formula where the nasty, ruthless rich guy sees the light at the end of the movie and through personal transformation becomes more sensitive & caring. This film illustrated the reality of the right-wing corporate mind-set – they just don’t get it. No matter how clearly he is shown the evils and grief caused by a fundamentally unethical economic system, Running Man just is too entrenched in his position to change it. From where Running Man sits, everything looks just fine and when he is exposed to criticism of his world, he can’t figure out what people are griping about. To him, self-interest is the basis of a divine plan for the creation & distribution of wealth. Those with the most self-interest create the most wealth and then this wealth is supposed to trickle down to those of us who are looking after the rest of life’s necessities such as society & the environment. Running Man rationalizes the fact that wealth doesn’t trickle down but continues to flow up as caused by the a lack of gumption in the have-nots. He believes free-enterprise capitalism is an economic system perfectly aligned with natural human impulses and those not benefiting are just too lazy to take advantage of its opportunities. He is like the pre-revolutionary French aristocrats who couldn’t understand that history was passing them by and that they had become irrelevant.
The Running Man image first appeared in a series of oil paintings in 1997. Below is the first appearance of Running Man as a painting/sculpture study of a potential clear sheet acrylic sculpture.
The series began as a personal catharsis for understanding men who flee attachment but in the process, I became aware that I too was a running man, neglecting the really important parts of life by chasing success and worldly concerns. As they say, artists always make self-portraits.
Though women can and do participate in institutions of dominance, Running Man remains gender-specific to reflect the principally male corporate culture.
To the right is another very early Running Man study in oils. Again this was a study for a sculpture of a figure in a business suit cut out of clear sheet acrylic and superimposed on a scene, in this case, a selection of homey items.
As my understanding of the scope of this series progressed, I began to cut figures of the man in the suit out of plywood, put a clear acrylic briefcase in his hands and set him up in 3D configurations. This business-suited figure represents transnational, discorporate man, optimizing capital and cutting losses. The 3D series went on to examine the larger influences that were breaking down family, community and society and became a larger critique of global capitalism and its impacts on the economy, society,and the environment.
Another Running Man painting/sculpture study from this period
introduced the idea that later became the wooden sculpture All That Glisters (shown below) and finally the large steel sculpture Running Man installed in Kelowna BC (shown above).
The first sculptural piece in the Running Man series was called Special Cases (shown below) and it addressed the impacts of free-market capitalism on the environment and natural resources. The clear acrylic briefcases contain water, trees and fish depicting degradation of ecosystems resulting from hit-and-run development. The piece looks at the ways in which resources are extracted from their natural environment and processed elsewhere so that the value of those resources does not benefit local economies. I exhibited this piece in 1999 in a sculpture exhibition at the University of Northern BC. At the time,
I had no capability for shipping transporting or installing sculptures, so I roped the plywood figures and the large wooden base to the top of my Ford Escort wagon and headed toward Prince George. Just before Hope I could see plywood figures sliding off the back of the car in my rear-view mirror, so I pulled off the highway and struggled to tie down my load. Somehow or other, we got to Prince George where I installed the piece, stayed for a couple of days with a kind friend who was a Commissioner with the Agricultural Land Commission then headed home.
When I made the above piece I was working as a planner for the Agricultural Land Commission (ALC), and was sculpting on days off. The title of the piece, Special Cases was inspired by my work at the Commission and an earlier job with the Ministry of Environment . Both bureaucracies were charged with the responsibility of protecting natural resources, but in both jobs, senior bureaucrats and politicians would find ways to avoid carrying out their legislated duties. A favourite method of weaseling out from under the requirement to protect agricultural, forest, water and other resource lands is to class them as “Special Cases”. So for instance, though the ALC was mandated to preserve & protect agricultural lands, a category of lands would be classed as Special Cases so that they can be developed in a business-as-usual approach. For instance, new highway, road or railway rights of way have been designated as Special Cases; as well as pipeline pumping stations, underground pipelines, surveying, exploring or prospecting for gravel, oil or minerals. Whereas it is the objective of the ALC to preserve agricultural land and to encourage the establishment and maintenance of farms a Special Case designation would allow for geophysical exploration for oil and gas, drilling an oil or gas well and drilling an oil or gas well or installing a pipeline without making an application to the Commission.
This is Running Man in his bureaucratic context – ensuring that the dominant paradigm, which is that economic demands must always take precedence over over social or ecological needs, prevails. Briefly stated, the dominant paradigm assumes: 1) the universe revolves around the economic needs of one puny species (human beings) rather than the needs of the other 1.7 million species on the planet; and 2) human beings have a God-given right to consume disproportionate amounts of other species and natural ecosystems. Though illogical and irrelevant, this paradigm continues to form the basis of individual, corporate and government decision making in BC and throughout the world.
The next piece in the series was called Colour Theory and it examined the social impacts of unrestrained capitalism on the lives of workers and others. Running Man comes in two versions – large and powerful and small and powerless based on the idea that an imbalance power between males & females arises from relations of dominance. Poorer males accept the domination of wealthier more powerful males only because the society allows them to dominate females. The more rigid and repressive the power structure in a society, the greater is the need for subjugation of women.
The larger version is a man in a business suit with a clear acrylic briefcase and a hole where his heart and guts should be. He looks outdated because his style was appropriate in the 1940s and ‘50s when a smaller world population had not yet made it clear that unsustainable consumption of natural resources could not continue indefinitely. In a world of diminishing natural capital Running Man must become increasingly fanatical in order to ignore the obvious and stick to the unworkable assumptions of the dominant paradigm. He must run ever faster to keep ahead of the global disasters in his wake
In this piece, the briefcasescontain smaller, less powerful naked running men, some of which are dismembered. These figures indicate the social dislocation that occurs when workers are transients chasing uncertain employment created by increasingly mobile capital. These smaller figures also appear in a sub-series on the theme of graffiti, to appear later in this blog, investigating competing individual and corporate claims to attention in the public realm. The title Colour Theory also comments on the ways in which elites set various ethnic groups against each other in order to deflect attention away from the fact that the economic system does not serve the majority’s interests.
The third sculpture in this series of wood & sheet acrylic works is called All That Glisters (shown below). In this piece, the briefcases contain bright but worthless baubles, illustrating the distorted values of a corporate culture in which economic wealth is valued over ecological and social health. This piece served as a maquette for the monumental sculpture of Running Man that was created in & for Kelowna as part of the Okanagan-Thompson International Sculpture Symposium (OTISS) in 2002.
OTISS was a wonderful 3 month sculpture symposium that brought talented sculptors from all over the world to eight interior BC communities. An independent international jury chose 10 Canadian and 10 international artists to sculpt a variety of pieces for each community. I was chosen to create a 16′ tall steel & resin sculpture of Running Man for a site at the Kelowna Transit Centre.
As anyone who has installed a monumental sculpture in a public place knows, there is a high level of consultation needed with all the interests involved. In order to communicate with the City of Kelowna on what I would be creating, I learned to create a mock-up of the sculpture as it would look onsite. Here is one of the first images I sent to the City.
I simply used the above image of All That Glisters, placed it on a pedestal and photoshopped it into place at the Transit Centre in Kelowna.Originally, I had wanted to place the Running Men on a stack of coins & experimented with photoshop versions of a gold or silver stack of coins as shown below. I wanted to have the edge of each coin ribbed like a real coin, but the cost of an 8′ pedestal of that diameter and the plasma cutting of the ribbing would have been too expensive.
However, I soon realized that the 3 figures parallel to each other did not create a sufficiently stable form, so using cardboard models, I experimented with other configurations. Below is the maquette with the figures triangulated for greater stability.
I also reduced the pedestal to one coin balanced on a column with CNC routered images of naked running men. The column referenced ancient columns that always featured ancient Running Man successfully defeating his enemies.
Though I did as much work as possible myself, much of the fabrication was consigned to a fabrication facility called Monashee and other metal shops, because it was not possible to do it at site I was given beside the Kelowna Public Library. Below is one of the figures freshly cut out of one 3/8″ sheet of mild steel 8′ x 24′.
Below one of the figures is being sand-blasted prior to painting.
The symposium was modeled on traditional stone carving symposia, where a sculptor works on a large stone for many months. The symposium organizers had not anticipated the difficulties of fabricating steel in an urban setting.
An additional problem arose when the symposium organizers were unsuccessful in obtaining hoped-for funding. In the end, the artists were paid after many delays.
After the symposium I wanted to experiment with concrete, especially casting in concrete. So I cast 3 small running men using a rubber mold, (Smooth-On’s Brush-On 35) and a plaster mother mold to cast the three concrete guys for Off-Centre (below). The concrete mix I use for casting is just cement & sand (1:3) and water mixed 1:4 with white glue (Polyvinyl acetate). I got the steel flat stock machine rolled and hung a mossy rock from a steel chain.
The rock represents the earth and the sculpture comments on the dominant paradigm in which the economy, run by guys in suits, is assumed to be the whole of reality while the earth and its ecosystems are merely “externalities” of an unquantifiable economic value and therefore of no value . This is an inversion of the real world in which the economy is merely one activity by one species on the planet and entirely dependent on the earth’s ecosystems for its continuance.
Above the sculpture is shown at Peace Arch Park which straddles the Canadian/US border. The rock originally hung from a single chain so that it dangled within the steel rim. But viewers swung the rock on the chain until it flew up and broke one of the figures. So a second chain was attached to prevent people from playing with the artwork. It is my theory that mindless activity such as this by art philistines has had a profound effect on contemporary outdoor art. In order to withstand the rigours of public interaction, sculptures have evolved from earlier works that overcome the limitations of the material to create sweeping, swooping lines and delicate forms to become the current stolid geometrical shapes designed to withstand oafs that climb on, swing from and have their pictures taken atop any and every artwork in the public realm. Nothing can project that will not be snapped off, no small part can be attached that will not be removed and no paint, powder-coat or other effort to create a durable finish can survive being scuffed and scraped by shoes, pen-knives, stones and anything else that comes to hand or foot.
Partly it is the small percentage of sociopaths among us that are referred to in more detail in another blog http://marionleajamieson.ca/2011/10/30/musings-maquet…on-art-anarchy. But mostly it is the majority of otherwise upstanding citizens who have no idea how to treat sculptures that are unlucky enough to be placed in their path. Everyone assumes that if something is not a sidewalk, a park bench or a fire hydrant, it must be a climbing apparatus. So people immediately jump on sculptures as they have never been taught otherwise. As a society we need to educate our citizens not to abuse sculpture the same way people have been taught not to blow smoke in the faces of fellow diners or not to let their doggies poop on the sidewalk. When I was in Paris, every museum and art gallery had groups of Parisian school kids sitting in front of works of art learning that these things are a precious aspect of their culture. As you tour the Tuileries Garden you do not see people swinging off heroic outstretched arms or using urns as skateboard ramps.
But here in North America we seem to feel that this is what is bound to happen so we should accept it and only permit idiot-proof works to be displayed. However, even the sturdiest, most well-designed & fabricated work isn’t safe from the public. An example is a great sculpture called Olas de Viento or “Wind Waves” by Yvonne Domenge which sits overlooking the beach in Richmond’s Garry Point Park.
When we last came across it there were several children climbing through the piece while their Mom attended to her cel phone nearby. The kids were throwing rocks at the inner surfaces, which is clearly a common activity as the paint finish was chipping off in many places.
Though it is outdoors and relatively unprotected, Seattle’s Olympic Sculpture Park discourages vandalism of its priceless sculpture collection by unambiguous and continuous signage “Do Not Touch the Sculptures”. No namby-pamby “please do not climb on the sculptures for your own safety” here. So no one so much as steps off the foot paths for a closer look. Every sculpture everywhere should have such a sign to reinforce a public education program to teach everyone respect for artworks in the public realm.
Speaking of artworks in the public realm, since Kelowna’s bold stance in accepting Running Man as a sculpture in its downtown core, there have been no further Running Man commissions. Most municipal governments are dedicated to avoiding public controversy at all costs, so sculptures challenging the financial oligarchy are not welcome. Carved Bears, leaping fish, abstract forms and colourful banners are not likely to generate outraged letters to the editor, while corporate critiques may discourage generous donations to one’s party from local businesses. And private commissions from the Running Man series have been noticeably absent as well. Those who can afford to buy artworks (the big collectors in my town are property developers) just don’t want artworks that challenge the political & economic status quo that got them where they are.
The last piece in the Running Man series was a maquette for a steel & resin screen called The Many Moods of Running Man. My idea was to plasma-cut running man figures out of 3/8″ steel then fill in the cut-outs with tinted clear resin. I can see it now at a scale of 1:3 astride a grand plaza with a water feature murmuring in the background and the sun casting deep resin tints onto the concrete! Below is the maquette in wood and Mylar.
The piece addresses the way corporatism co-opts spontaneous creative cultural products for its own purposes. So if, for instance, grass-roots organizations are successful in promoting human rights, ecological awareness or if an art movement or school arises that captures the public imagination, corporations are quick to co-opt this energy to their own ends. Thus the life in every worthwhile cultural development from rap to the “Green” movement is neutralized as a vehicle for profit. This was the last piece in the series as I was running out of storage space & had to admit that buyers weren’t lining up to put a Running Man over the sofa. So for the next 5-6 years I worked on abstract forms even though I had been told at one of those “how to market your artwork” workshops presented by well-meaning government bodies, that the best selling artworks were landscapes and still-lifes (still lives?) and that abstract stuff was way down on the list. My thoughts on abstract art will be marshalled for my next blog.
The Running Man series challenged the unspoken yet pervasive artistic convention that overtly political art is somehow diminished by its subject-matter. At the same time I was working toward creating a two and three dimensional vocabulary of forms that were complete as discreet units and worked together as an overall theme and pushed the limits of my technical abilities to design and fabricate works in three dimensions.
In an earlier post, On Birds, I showed progress to date on a sculpture I am working on called The Singer. Since then, I have been carving away on the chunk of discarded styrofoam that will serve as the armature for the finished work that will probably be in concrete . Here it is at the stage where I had finished using the big wire cutter I showed in that previous post.
The first wire cutter described in that earlier post had problems so my partner Colin designed this larger cutter with a more powerful transformer. But there were further problems with this bigger, better hot-wire cutter design that I used for taking doing the rough cuts shown above. It got too hot & the transformer died. So we bought another transformer:
The new transformer for hot-wire cutter design #3 is slightly more powerful than cutter design #2. But in order to keep it from overheating, it can only be used for about 10 minutes, then it has to be shut off to let it cool down.
That’s why there’s a sign on the cutter saying “5 minutes on – 5 minutes off” as a reminder. The other change to hot-wire-cutter design #3 is the addition of a spring & chain on the opposite side to the wire to maintain tension. Without some way to maintain tension, the wire heats up, expands and cuts off a concave piece rather than a straight piece.
This is also a much smaller cutter as the wire is about 18″ long. It is designed for more detailed carving. Cutter #2 was about 36″ long in order to cut large chunks off at a time.
After using cutter #3 for rough carving, I’m now using other tools for final shaping. A “Sawsall” or reciprocating saw works well for some largish cuts.
It took a while to get the hang of using this saw as it can dig in and gouge unwanted holes. Because of its length, it is also limited in that it can only cut from certain angles. It is not as clean as the hot-wire cutter, but the smoking styrofoam created by the hot-wire is certainly a health hazard and must be blown away from the operator so it’s probably not a good idea to spend too much time hot-wire cutting. The Sawsall does create styrofoam dust or particles that are messy and no doubt shouldn’t be inhaled.
For more detailed shaping, or where the hot-wire cutter and the Sawsall can’t reach, I’m using an electric drill with a rough sanding disk.
This is very effective % takes off a surprising amount of material, but it makes a horrendous mess of the studio. Styrofoam particles become electro-statically clingy and stick on your body & clothes. I wear a spray-apinters’ paper overall with eleasticized wrists, ankes & hood, but inside I’m still coated in particles. They get in the eyes(very painful) & nose (can’t bee good for the lungs) so a particle mask & goggles are needed and the whole get-up is hot & stuffy.
Afterwards, sweeping and vacuuming the studio can take forever, so I’ve set up the soon-to-be-world-patented extractor designed by my partner Colin Race. He originally designed this to extract steel particles from grinding welds, and it can be hung over the grinding area and works well. As styrofoam sinks to the floor, it is placed below wherever I am working and extracts most of what doesn’t stick on me. Here’s the extractor in all it’s elegance & beauty:
Most artists can’t afford a manufactured extraction system, so most artists are probably suffering from the long-term effects of inhaling the nasty stuff we work with. What this system lacks in efficiency & style it makes up for in economy. It is basically an electric extractor fan sitting on a cart with a length of flexible ducting attached to the front of the extractor extending to the work area and another length of ducting attached to the rear of the extractor leading to the exhaust port. The ducting accordions into itself for storage.
The front or intake point of the ducting is held open by duct-taping a pail with the bottom cut out (the handle is handy for hanging the intake above the workspace.)
The exhaust port is a little painstaking to set up. There are several styrofoam insulation boards that have been glued together to create a “plug” for the bottom of the roll-up garage door. The exhaust end of the ducting is inserted into several pieces of plywood glued together for rigidity & to support the weight of the door:
Here is how it looks from the outside:
There’s also a piece that fits at the top of the roll-up door to block sound if I am working with very noisy machinery but it’s nit shown here. The studio is in a residential neighbourhood and there are complaints if I make noise. it seems to be acceptable to use leaf blowers for hours on end (I’ve watched neighbours chase one leaf down the sidewalk with a leaf blower at 75 dB) and guys seem to love using the things especially on sunny days. Many of the neighbours use lawn care companies that use two-stroke, gas-powered weedeater or line trimmer that typically run at approximately 115 decibels, equating to the upper limit of a live rock concert (the average human pain threshold is 110 dB) and gas powered lawn mowers at about 95 decibels. The other favourite neighbourhood activity is pressure washing. On a hot day, it appears to be a mindless, cooling activity and it’s something people can spend a whole weekend doing despite the fact that pressure washers emit 78 – 85 decibels. After finishing the house, my neighbours get their driveway and sidewalks clean enough to eat off. But no one complains about this as it must be considered part of being a scrupulous homeowner and keeping the property values up.
But making art is completely different and any noise emitting from my studio is likely to engender unbridled rage. Especially women seem to find the sight of another woman using power tools to be unacceptably irritating. I’ve had neighbour women screaming in my face while I’m trying to do a delicate cut with a router. Another told me what I was doing (grinding & polishing a concrete sculpture) was “unnecessary” and shouldn’t be tolerated. A little later she had her sidewalk moved to another location which involved days of deafening jack hammering.
There are no complaints about any of this activity even though the Noise Bylaw for the City of Vancouver states that: “No person shall in a quiet zone (ie residential area) make, cause or permit to be made or caused, continuous sound the sound level of which during the daytime exceeds a rating of 55 on an approved sound meter when received at a point of reception…”. But it is very difficult to find affordable studio space in Vancouver, so to placate the outraged Philistines, I work inside with the sound muffled, sweating amid clouds of styrofoam dust.
To the right shows progress to date on the rear of the sculpture.
I am trying to ignore a VERY loud pressure washer next door as I write this blog.
Today in the free Vancouver newspaper, “The Georgia Straight“, there was an article about Paul Watson, described as an “eco-pirate” who stated that worms are more important than humans…”because worms can live on the earth without us but we can’t live without them. we need them and they don’t need us. And bees and insects and fish: we need them and they don’t need us. It makes them ecologically more important than we are.” As Watson says, “A lot of people don’t like to hear that”. This is a succinct statement of the philosophical premise behind the series of sculptures, paintings, prints & drawings I have been working on since 1985 with the working title, “Back to Nature”.
But whether or not people like to hear that we are no more important than Rockfish, this is a message that humans need to internalize. Ecologists like Watson prioritize the needs of ecosystems over the social or economic demands of humans and this is as it should be.
Humans are merely one of millions of species in a biosphere that depends on the health of the ecosystems within it. It is not rational to believe that the demands of one of these species should be met at the expense of all the other species and the eecosystem as a whole.
Unless we lose our human hubris and practice humility, we will continue to obliterate our fellow-species. One example is Rockfish. Years ago, Rockfish were everywhere and people caught them by simply dangling a line into shallow water off docks & dingys and pulling them in. They were a favourite catch for children, being so easy to hook. But Rockfish are particularly susceptible to overfishing, because they rarely survive after being caught and released. Rockfish are long-lived fish (living to about 100 and 60 years respectively), and they do not reproduce until they are at least 10 years old.
Sister Fish, the sculpture shown above is about the interdependence between humans and fish. As reference material for the human part of the piece, I used images of myself in the yoga pose called in Sanscrit, Pincha Mayurasana, also called elbow balance” or “forearm stand”. Though I used this pose as the basis for the sculpture, Sister Fish, this pose is actually known as “Feathered Peacock Pose”.
Here I am in elbow balance in 2003. At the time, I had only been studying yoga for a couple of years so I had to use a number of props to get into “elbow balance”. Also please note that I have since learned to better contain my ribs & belly and develop more strength & control in my core. This pose is all over the place. As a result, “Sister Fish”‘s Elbow Balance is not a text-book illustration of a fish-woman in the pose.
For the fish part of the piece I purchased a Rockfish at the fisheries wharf on Granville Island in Vancouver. I took it home, photographed it then baked it for dinner, and I must say it was delicious. At the time I didn’t know they were endangered and I thought it had continuity to it – I ate the fish and it became part of me and then I made a sculpture about being part-fish/part-woman.
The main point being, of course, that we are all part of the same ecosystem and further that we are all – fish & humans – only slight variations on the carbon-based life forms template. In other words, in the overall scale of things, fish and humans differ only marginally as expressions of cosmic consciousness solidifying briefly in amalgamations of atoms that coalesce into a form recognizable as one species or another.
Below is my Rockfish. A heartfelt thanks to this fish for providing it’s image for this piece. Not that it volunteered, or that I killed it for art. It was already frozen solid when I bought it off the boat. Even in death it’s a beautiful creature. Certainly more elegant than myself in “Elbow Balance” in 2003.
Below is the sculpture in progress before I fattened up the legs, corrected the arms and applied acid stain.
An Aside on Yoga
I’ve now been studying Yoga for almost 10 years and the more I get into it, the more I realize I have hardly touched the surface of what there is to learn.
Today I got a book out of the library with the teachings of Mr. B.K.S. Iyengar, one of the foremost yoga masters in the world. Opposite is an image of him in a very advanced version of the elbow balance pose was in above. I just read the first few pages of his 1998 book, The Tree of Yoga, but was struck by his philosophy in terms of taking action in the worldly world. If I understand correctly, he says it is the expectation of benefits or rewards stemming from one’s actions that we must learn to avoid. The goal is to act according to an understanding of what is the right thing to do in a particular circumstance, rather than acting in the hope of some future outcome. This sounds like a subtle shift in attitude, but requires discipline for all of us raised in a culture of competition and individual achievement.
Yoga is a path to not only physical health , but clarity of mind and spirit. Wikipedia defines the Sanskrit word yoga as meaning “yoke”, from a root yuj, referring to the discipline involved. BKS Iyengar, however, defines “Yoga” as “union”, the union of the body with the mind and of mind with the soul.
After 10 years, I consider myself an advanced beginner in Yoga. I am making some progress in the union of body and mind through the practice of yoga poses, but am not gifted in my pursuit of the union of mind and soul. Having been raised in a family of intellectual atheists where religion was viewed as the opiate of the people I have the challenge of overcoming a tendency toward forming strong opinions. However, Mr Iyengar warns against making distinctions and saying we are doing a better yoga than this or a worse yoga than that. He teaches that Yoga is one as the world is one and the people of the world are one.
One of the reasons I love Yoga is that it is all about the integration of humans and their environment. For instance, many of the asanas have animal names, such as the fish pose and cobra pose. This is because yogis devised their asanas partly by observing how animals instinctively act in the wild. They understood that animal poses can help us to connect with powerful aspects of ourselves that we often repress in our busy lives.
The fish posture (left) is called matsya in Sanskrit. Matsya is a divine being, found in Hindu mythology, that saved mankind from a universal flood. The king of pre-ancient Dravida and a devotee of Vishnu was washing his hands in a river when a little fish swam into his hands and pleaded with him to save its life. He put it in a jar, which it soon outgrew. He then moved it to a tank, a river and then finally the ocean but to no avail.
The fish then revealed himself to be Vishnu and told him that a deluge would occur within seven days that would destroy all life. Therefore, the king was instructed to take “all medicinal herbs, all the varieties of seeds, and accompanied by the seven saints” along with the other animals. Lord Matsya is generally represented as a four-armed figure with the upper torso of a man and the lower of a fish.
At the beginning, I studied Yoga thinking that it would make me a better artist. I practiced in order to be physically fit enough for the feats of strength involved in moving around the weighty materials of my trade. Then later on I realized Yoga helped me overcome the ego-crushing rejections, disappointments and slights that any artist must learn to accept and deal with. As the years went by, I realized that Yoga was not in a separate compartment from my art practice but was an integral part of it. Now I’m beginning to think that my art practice is an aspect of my Yoga practice which is whole of life.
Back to Art Practice
There have been many iterations of the Sister Fish image. After the concrete version, there was a wooden maquette shown below:
But I thought that a final full-size sculpture in steel would have more stability if the sides of the body were in one piece rather than two. So the next iteration was a very small maquette that was sent to France as part of the application for a sculpture symposium. The regulation size for the maquettes was 30 cm., so the second model was cut out of sheet aluminum.
The other reason it was cut with a scroll saw out of sheet aluminum was that at the time that I submitted this proposal, I didn’t have the capability of welding steel at that gauge or any other.
Below is the tiny aluminum maquette that was mailed to France. It was accepted for the symposium and I immediately set about learning how to weld steel.
So my partner Colin & I took a one-day course in MIG welding at KMS Tools in Burnaby BC. As a practice piece, we brought along some steel to KMS to make a smaller version of the steel Sister Fish to be fabricated at the symposium in France.
The instructor, Doug, was a very nice guy and showed us how he would put such a piece together. We worked on it enough that we figured we would be able to produce a steel sculpture for the symposium and left for France.
Symposium Atrium was held in Amneville-les-Thermes, Lorraine, France in 2006. There were 19 invited international sculptors working outdoors in a parking lot in this tourist-oriented centre. The sculptors and there work were on display and busloads of people arrived constantly to view the works as they progressed. Below is a picture of the site with the flags of all the participating nations. For some reason, the Canadian flag was stolen on the first day, so it is not shown.
It was a wonderful experience to be working with so many accomplished sculptors from all over the world. Sculptors are my favourite people. The working conditions were quite grim – it was either raining or blasting hot, but everyone helped everyone else and there was no rivalry or competition. Below Colin (R) and Chuan Shu Xing from China are assisting Javier Astorga from Mexico to bend sheet steel.
We managed to complete the sculpture we had proposed on time but it was hard work and I sometimes thought my hands would fall off from overuse. Below, I’m working on the piece in my fetching grubbies.
Below is the completed painted mild steel version of Sister Fish we did in France.
There were stability problems with the piece that weren’t apparent in the maquettes, so when we got home, I added wings to the design to triangulate the arms with the base. Below is the practice version of Sister Fish we did before we left with wings added and re-named Angel Fish. it was spray painted silver and exhibited at Big Rock Sculpture Garden in Bellingham WA.
I still wasn’t happy with this piece as the base tended to accumulate debris that obscured the hands and the piece was too low to the ground. So we cast a big concrete pedestal for it and exhibited it again in Port Angeles WA as shown below.
The sculpture was damaged while on exhibition (the drunken, destructive lout factor) so it was taken home, media blasted and powder-coated. In 2010, Angel Fish traveled to China (minus the 600+ lb base) for the 4th Beijing International Art Biennale. So this fish/human image has been all over the world, spreading the word that fish are people too.
While looking through some old drawings I found a fish image from my days as a committed peace activist. During the 1980’s my life was devoted to the peace movement, especially the anti-nuclear weapons side. I was a member of the Peace Flotilla which was a coalition of disparate activists from church groups to communists who were united in their opposition to clear intentions by the USA to use Vancouver as a naval base for their nuclear-armed warships.
This was a poster I did for a fund-raiser at the now-defunct La Quena coffee house, which was a centre for community political information & discussion on Vancouver’s Commercial Drive. Though divorced at the time, I was still using my married name, Marion Dahl because I hadn’t got around to changing back to my original name. The poster was done on scratchboard using the cross-hatch technique I studied & developed for the illustration work I did for a living at that time.
In a previous post I described some of the work I have been doing in exploring bird/human imagery. This post continues on this theme and also illustrates the process in which an idea takes shape. This idea is for the next sculpture I will be working on after finishing the current piece shown in that earlier posting (bear with me, I have just discovered hyperlinks). Below is the clay maquette of The Singer that I used as a model for the plaster maquette of The Singer. But before getting into the technical stuff about howthe idea was developed, I would like to get back into the theoretical stuff behind the idea.
In previous posts, I talked about my interest in the use of animal symbolism in ancient myths, legends and spirituality. One of the more compelling perspectives on this is the ancient Egyptian Cosmic Religion. The website of the Egyptian Mystical University (EMU), www.egypt-tehuti.org, is a fascinating source of information about Egyptian mysticism.
The EMU agrees with most religions throughout the world, that the human being is made in the image of God, i.e. a miniature universe; and that to understand the universe is to understand oneself, and vice versa. The Ancient Egyptians. understood that man was made in the image of God, and as such, man represented the image of all creation. This is an interesting revelation as it helps me to understand how the idea that man was made in the image of God has been misinterpreted.
In an earlier post I suggested that the anthropocentrism of the Abrahamic monotheistic religions has provided a rational for human domination of the planet at the expense of all other species. The statement in the Book of Genesis, “ And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.” has been interpreted to mean that human beings have special status in nature based on unique capacities and that therefore God has somehow ordained unlimited human expansion and resource use on a finite planet.
However, this glimpse into Egyptian mysticism helps to clarify the original idea of man as made in the image of God. The idea was not that man was god-like or more like god than other species, but only that if a person can fully understand themselves, they can understand the universe. The EMU goes on to explain that the reason a human image was used as the image of God is because the only way to explain anything to human beings is on human terms and in human form. And just as human beings can represent divinity, other species could be used as well. In order to represent divine powers/attributes/functions/forces/energies.
Egyptians identified certain animals with specific qualities that could symbolize certain divine functions and principles. These animals were chosen as symbols for that particular aspect of divinity so animal or animal-headed gods & goddesses are symbolic expressions of a deep spiritual understanding. When a total animal is depicted in Ancient Egypt, it represents a particular function/attribute in its purest form. When an animal-headed figure is depicted, it conveys that particular function/attribute in the human being.
I find it encouraging to confirm that humans have in the past understood the commonality and interdependency between humans & other species, and that the current human disregard for the natural world is not an ingrained human attribute but a recent development in human hubris. I am convinced that the anthropomorphism of the Abrahamic religions is at the heart of the crisis facing the planet as human habitat and human aquisitiveness wreak havoc on the natural world. It is my personal Theory of Everything.
This is why I continue to explore the animal/human fusion images and why these images have interested (not to say obsessed) me for 25 years. It is such a simple but powerful idea: that all we carbon-based life-forms subsisting on the thin skin of earth on this 3rd rock from the Sun are all in this together and if we mess things up for the other life-forms, we mess it up for ourselves. Somehow the birds represent the most vulnerable of the life-forms and also the most beautiful. Their demise through human hubris is most clearly morally insupportable (though why the demise of any insect species should be any less insupportable is unsupportable).
So I continue to work with bird/human images and have been working with ideas for communicating these images in steel. Translating a realistic figure into steel is effective because it demands that the figure be simplified, stylized & abstracted.
The trouble with realistic images of people, birds, big-eyed puppies etc., is that they tend to be sentimental, stereotypical and schmaltzy.
But translating an image from realistic clay to hard steel circumvents these pitfalls. I began by printing out a photo of the clay maquette, and traced it on a light table to make a line drawing. Then I imagined how to make the image out of steel and drew that. Here is the line drawing:
Instead of trying to make the image as realistic as possible, the intention was to make the fabrication as much fun and as little work as possible. Anyone who has worked with steel knows how much work it is to fabricate a volumetric component such as a cube with all those seams to be welded and ground. So instead, I created a design that would use manufactured components like pipes and rods.
The Singer would be constructed using .3 cm thick mild steel for all components. Fabrication will begin with an armature about 155 cm high made up of two intersecting planes welded at the centre. The perimeter of these planes will create the form of the figure seen from the front & side. This armature will be welded onto a plinth comprising one large & one small capped steel pipes welded together. The plinth will be about 75 cm high x 90 cm in diameter.
Encasing the armature will be a series of bands made from 4.5 cm x .3 cm flat stock . These are welded to the armature.
Arms & legs will be created from steel tubing using fittings at elbows & knees. The knees will also serve as reducers to accommodate larger thigh & smaller shin. Hands & feet will be made from rectangular steel tubing and fingers & toes will be made from steel rods about 2-3 cm in diameter.
The feathers will be plasma cut from sheet steel and welded onto the encircling bands. The feathers will be welded to the plinth & body from the bottom up so that they overlap & the welds are hidden. The beak will be made from steel tubing with a flat inner facing and the eyes made from either found hardware or plasma cut.
I am excited about using manufactured components as they create an interesting abstraction of the form & add a “ready-made” aspect to the work.
Once I had the outline of how I would approach transforming this very sensuous bird-person into metal, I honed my elementary Photoshop skills on trying to make it look like 3D steel.
So here is the same image with Photoshop/Window/Tools/Gradient Tool/Gradient Picker/Black&White/Edit/More/Metals/Steel Bar.
Photoshopping is such fun but can turn into an obsession ie trying to get those gradients just so. And it can devour hours of time, especially for me because I forget how to do things if I’m away from it for a while. Or the program will do buggy things that take me hours to figure out. For instance, the original line drawing above had been somehow changed into a bitmap. I had actually constructed the drawing in GIMP then brought it into Photoshop. I should have been alerted when I went to re-size and the resolution was 1200 pixels/inch. So when I tried to save it it couldn’t be saved for the web as a jpg. I spent a ridiculous amount of time trying to figure out why it was stuck until I stumbled into Mode/Bitmap.
For a while I used GIMP as my drawing program because I thought you had to pay a fortune for Photoshop.
I just love things like GIMP that people put out there for free. But it kept crashing on me & I had a huge sign on my comp “save every 5 minutes!!!”
Then I found out you can buy Photoshop Elements for way less, which is a fact that is not easy to find out on the Adobe site. Now I use a combination of the 2 programs because some aspects of GIMP are better than Photoshop.
Next to the sound of birdsong, there is nothing lovelier than frogsong of a Spring evening. In celebration of frogs, I have created a number of works over the years to communicate their critical role in the earth as we know it. Above is a small wooden version of a piece that could serve as a maquette for a larger work in steel. I also did a smaller version in steel.
This work continues my fascination for the past 30 years with melded animal/human figures, the myths that feature them and how they relate to changing human history. In ancient religions these figures were symbolic expressions of a deep spiritual understanding and represented a particular human function/attribute in its purest form. This indicates that there was a recognition of and respect for the similarities between humans & other species and an understanding that all sentient creatures share more commonalities than differences. This understanding was lost over time as humans became farther removed from the natural world and failed to appreciate our dependence on it. This has led to the degradation of the planet through over-expansion of human habitat and the disappearance of the habitats of other species.
The frog is often considered the “Tunnel Canary” in the human global experiment of mining the earth and converting its resources for our use. Frogs are one of the most sensitive species to global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer.
Wikipedia states that frog populations have declined dramatically since the 1950s: more than one third of species are believed to be threatened with extinction and more than 120 species are suspected to be extinct since the 1980s. Habitat loss is a significant cause of frog population decline, as are pollutants, climate change, the introduction of non-indigenous predators/competitors, and emerging infectious diseases. Many environmental scientists believe that amphibians, including frogs, are excellent biological indicators of broader ecosystem health because of their intermediate position in food webs, permeable skins, and typically biphasic life (aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults).
Frogs feature prominently in folklore, fairy tales and popular culture. They tend to be portrayed as benign, ugly, clumsy, but with hidden talents. “The Frog Prince” is a fairy tale of a frog who turns into a handsome prince once kissed. The Moche people of ancient Peru often depicted frogs in their art.
In Panama local legend promised luck to anyone who spotted a golden frog in the wild and some believed that when Panamanian Golden Frogs died, they would turn into a gold talisman, known as a huaca. Today, despite being extinct in the wild, Panamanian Golden Frogs remain an important cultural symbol.
I have love frogs since childhood when my sisters & I would collect them from creeks & ditches & bring them home to live in our backyard pond. Unfortunately, our cats would catch them & kill them, thus we and a million other children did our bit to reduce frog populations.
One piece I did involving frogs was based on a drawing.
Like the Three Graces in the bird blog, Elegy used a famous classical painting as a point of departure and modified it to change the message to include other species besides humans. Later I used the drawing as a basis for a painting shown below.
The famous painting on which it is based is the following:
Though my first version of this painting was done in 1986, then updated 30 years later, I have been uncomfortable about showing it publicly because of concerns that some might find it offensive which is the very opposite of my intention. I have never subscribed to the theory that the role for art is to shock the comfortable into questioning their beliefs, and I have the greatest respect for the human search for spiritual understanding and faith. I do, however feel strongly that the mass species extinction of frogs is tragic and am using the pieta symbol as a way to communicate the scope of this tragedy. Because frogs are considered a lowly species, the use of a frog figure to depict Christ may appear blasphemous to some people. But the use of animal figures to depict Him is not something I made up to annoy people. When in France, I was surprised to find ancient sculptures & paintings with Christ depicted as a fusion of different animals: part lion to reflect courage; part lamb to show His gentleness; part bird to show his heavenly nature; etc. It is a reflection of our distance and antagonism to the natural world that this type of representation currently rarely appears to my knowledge.
I used another painting from a life-drawing class that was less than successful to create another frog painting. About 1997, I did a painting called Colourful Robe that exhibited the same problems as describes in the Bird Blog – paintings of women (indeed any artistic depiction of women) has a built-in Kitch factor.
This is because women have been over-represented as subjects for art, and have been pimped for hundreds of years to communicate such cloying sentiments as The Eternal Woman or Motherhood, or Beauty. Now any artist that uses an image of an (especially) naked woman must deal with centuries of sentimental abuse of the female figure in art. At one point, I thought that it was the static nature of painting, photography & sculpture that lent the female image its slightly pornographic quality, no matter how innocent the intention. So I tried making drawings of the female body in motion, which was a slight improvement but still felt uncomfortable with it. Then I realized that the figure of the human male suffered from the same over-exposure and was difficult to use without conveying tired clichés.
So like the painting of the woman on the beach to which I attached the Stork’s head, I turned this figure into the Frog Queen and was much happier with it. As I said, I regard all of my paintings as works in progress and only stop working on them when they are taken away from me through sale. Below is the first iteration of this painting.
I loved the imperious expression on the models face and wanted to translate that into the Frog figure. All of these works question & challenge the lowly status of other species and the assumption that they are lesser beings in terms of beauty, grace, authority and divine esteem. The Frog Queen suggests that if frogs ruled the world, there would certainly be no water pollution, climate change, the introduction of non-indigenous predators/competitors, and emerging infectious diseases. The world might be a much more liveable place for all of us.
Though I liked the colourful robe, again I wasn’t satisfied with the semi-naturalistic landscape setting and wanted to make the whole painting into a sculpture study. I was interested in taking the rules that had been used with the figure and applying them to the surroundings in order to make the whole more logical or make it a world with its own logic, so to speak. In other words, I applied the restricted palette and planar surfaces to the entire canvas. The idea was to create a reality as though carved in stone – as though the scenario was sculpted out of the side of a mountain.In recognition of my greater understanding of where this series is coming from, I re-named the painting Heket.
Wikepedia says that to the Egyptians, the frog was a symbol of life and fertility, since millions of them were born after the annual inundation of the Nile, which brought fertility to the otherwise barren lands. Consequently, in Egyptian mythology, there began to be a frog-goddess, who represented fertility, referred to as Heket (or Heqet). She was usually depicted as a frog, or a woman with a frog’s head, or more rarely as a frog on the end of a phallus to explicitly indicate her association with fertility.
As a fertility goddess, associated explicitly with the last stages of the flooding of the Nile, and so with the germination of corn, she became associated with the final stages of childbirth. This association gained her the title She who hastens the birth. Some claim that—even though no ancient Egyptian term for “midwife” is known for certain—midwives often called themselves the Servants of Heqet, and that her priestesses were trained in midwifery. Women often wore amulets of her during childbirth, which depicted Heqet as a frog, sitting in a lotus.
When the Legend of Osiris and Isis developed, it was said that it was Heqet who breathed life into the new body of Horus at birth, as she was the goddess of the last moments of birth. As the birth of Horus became more intimately associated with the resurrection of Osiris, so Heqet’s role became one more closely associated with resurrection. Eventually, this association lead to her amulets gaining the phrase I am the resurrection, and consequently the amulets were used by early Christians.
I wasn’t happy with this version either as the background didn’t relate to the figure, and the robe didn’t “read” well, so I did so more work on it as shown here.
Like all my paintings, it is probably still a work in progress and will likely be re-worked some more in the future. I will put it away then get it out in 6 months or a year and maybe think of ways to play with it some more. Painting is a lot of fun but I already have many paintings stored and no room to store any more. If one is, like myself, more interested in painting than marketing the work, they tend to accumulate. So if I want to do some painting, I get out one of my previous works and re-do it.
I consider all of these paintings as studies for future sculptures. This one I envision in concrete, again with subtle integral pigments. I might go back to including the colourful robe as it would be gorgeous to do it in vitreous glass mosaic tiles so that it glowed like a robe of jewels. I continue to seek a venue for creation of the Heket of the Frog Queen.
Another maquette using the frog/human image is a second version of Jumping Frogwoman in plaster.
I also made a mold to cast her in resin but haven’t got around to it. I would like to have her cast in bronze but it’s too expensive.
In this blog I describe what I’m currently working on, why it interests me and the issues the work presents. I’ll also discuss the motivation for earlier works and generally muse on life and art from a painter & sculptor’s perspective.
The project I am working on at the time of writing is called “The Singer”.
I have created a plaster maquette (model) of the piece
I am currently re-creating the model at a scale of 1:4.5 & have begun by carving a polystyrene armature out of a large chunk of polystyrene dumped in an industrial area. Here is an image of beginning to draw the figure on the polystyrene.
This armature provides support for modeling the detailed surface of the piece in either concrete or plaster, depending on where I can find a home for the finished artwork. If the final work is to be hand-built the final surface will be concrete. If the final work is to be cast, the the final surface will be plaster.
This is a departure for me as a sculptor because for the past few years I have been driven by commissions or creating work for particular exhibitions in the hope of selling it. The current piece is one that I am making because it takes me in the direction I want to go, which is not always the case with commissions.
Transposing the measurements from a 20″ high maquette to 90″ high is challenging especially since my piece of found polystyrene is an odd shape and not all parts of the figure fit into it. So I have to remove chunks then glue them back on for stump roots, tail feathers etc. The armature is not a thing of beauty.
First I roughly cut the front & back profiles and now I’m working on the sides.
To carve the polystyrene I am using a hot wire made by my partner Colin. I found information on making a hot-wire polystyrene cutter on the internet using a model train transformer as the heat source. As a first attempt it was fairly successful but kept shorting out then the transformer overheated & died. This time we used another design we found on the net using a 9 volt power supply, but it wasn’t hot enough. So we substituted a 12 volt transformer and a heavier gauge wire than most hot-wire designs recommend because I am cutting very dense polystyrene.
Using a hot wire to cut polystyrene is much neater than sawing it as it comes off in tidy chunks rather than a studio full of white flakes. But the fumes are toxic so I cut with doors open and a fan going.
Ideas I’m Working With
The sculpture is a realistic depiction of a half-bird/half/human figure with its head thrown back singing. The Singer celebrates the human instinct to make music and to create art. Biologists usually explains the singing of birds as a way of defining territory but it is difficult not to interpret bird-song as springing from the same impulse as human-song and The Singer is transported by the uplifting power of singing.
The work considers how we are different and how we are the same as birds but it suggests that the similarities are greater than the differences.It refers to the myths of every culture in which birds & humans transform into each other. It is part of a series of sculptures using as a theme archetypal images of part human/part animal figures that I have been creating for some time. These figures are characteristic of myths in every culture in the world and create a recognizable common thread among cultural traditions. Human/animal myths originated at a time when humans were more highly attuned to other species and all cultures include stories about animals that take on human characteristics to pierce the human/animal divide. My sculptures attempt to reconnect with and communicate the wisdom of ancestors who understood the inter-relatedness and inter-dependence of all forms of life and that sustainability involves protecting the ecosystems on which we all depend. This sculpture explores inter-connections between humans and bird species. Previous civilizations understood that birds & humans are interdependent, and if we destroy bird habitat, we destroy ourselves. The sculpture was inspired by a small, four-thousand year-old terracotta piece I saw in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
Ancient Human/Bird Myths
I am interested in the human/animal fusion images in that they stem from an earlier period of human development when people regarded the natural world as benign. The earth and its many & diverse forms of life were seen as a benevolent as long as they stayed in tune with its forces. In earlier religions the animal or animal-headed gods/goddesses are symbolic expressions of a deep spiritual understanding. For instance, when an animal was depicted in Ancient Egypt, it represented a particular function/attribute in its purest form. When an animal-headed figure is depicted, it conveys that particular function/attribute in the human being.
In addition to understanding the inherent connection and identification with other forms of life, earlier forms of religion recognized the importance of a balance between male & female energies.
J. J. Bachofen (1861) postulated that the historical patriarchates were a comparatively recent development, having replaced an earlier state of primeval matriarchy, and postulated a matriarchal society and chthonic mystery cults as the second of four stages of the historical development of religion. The first stage he characterized as a paleolithic hunter-and-gatherer society practicing a polyamorous and communistic lifestyle. The second stage is a matriarchal “lunar” stage of agriculture with an early form of Demeter the dominant deity. This was followed by a stage of emerging patriarchy, finally succeeded by the stage of patriarchy and the appearance of civilization in classical antiquity. In the later Abrahamic monotheistic religions, God is the Father, dominant, powerful, fatherly & masculine. This theory has its adherents and detractors, but it is a compelling and useful idea to explain the imbalances & conflicts between natural/human and male/female in current societies.
Many believe the anthropocentrism of the Abrahamic monotheistic religions is the underlying reason why humanity dominates and sees the need to “develop” most of the Earth for human habitat at the expense of all other species. The Book of Genesis states, “ And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.” This belief that human beings have special status in nature based on unique capacities provides the rationale for unlimited human expansion and resource use on a finite planet. That is why I am interested in looking at earlier concepts of the relationship between humans and the natural world to understand how, as artists, we can re-brand the human species in a more earth-friendly format.
This is an area I’ve been exploring for over 25 years. Here is one of my drawings called “Flying Dreams” from 2003.
Below are some of the ancient animal or human/animal fusion gods & goddesses that use the bird as a symbol for a particular human function or attribute.
Birds & the Divine
In Egyptian mythology, Nekhbet was an early local goddess who became the patron of Upper Egypt and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt. She was seen as a goddess who had chosen to adopt the city, and consequently depicted as the Egyptian white vulture, a creature that the Egyptians thought only existed as females (not knowing that the males are identical). They were presumed to be reproducing via parthenogenesis.
In art, Nekhbet was depicted as the white vulture (representing purification), always seen on the front of pharaoh’s double crown. Nekhbet usually was depicted hovering, with her wings spread above the royal image, clutching a shen symbol (representing infinity, all, or everything), frequently in both of her claws. As patron of the pharaoh, she was sometimes seen to be the mother of the divine aspect of the pharaoh, and it was in this capacity that she was Mother of Mothers.
In some late texts of the Book of the Dead, Nekhbet is referred to as Father of Fathers, Mother of Mothers, who hath existed from the Beginning, and is Creatrix of this World.
Another example is the Ba that is represented as a human-headed bird, which is the opposite of the normal depiction of gods/goddesses as human bodies with animal heads-in other words, as the divine aspect of the terrestrial. The Ba is depicted as a stork. The stork is known for its migrating and homing instinct, and is also known worldwide as the bird who carries newborn babies to their new families. The stork returns to its own nest with consistent precision-hence a migratory bird is the perfect choice to represent the soul.
Another early reference to the stork is in the Bible. In Leviticus (11:19) and Deuteronomy (14:18) the bird is listed along with other birds that should not be eaten. Both of these Old Testament books were written between 1450-1410 B.C., and these early references categorize this bird as such a sacred bird that it should not be killed. In Zechariah’s book, he wrote, “Then lifted I up my eyes, and looked and, behold, there came out two woman, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork…” (Zech 5:9).
The Bestiaries , written in the 8th and 9th centuries, also touched on the stork. Pliny, Aristotle, Indian, Hebrew, and Egyptian animal myths all contributed to this book’s insights. These birds are best known for having a strong responsibility to their young, and pull out their own feathers in order to keep them warm. This self-sacrifice shows the mothers put their children’s needs above their own comfort. This book also says, “their enemies are snakes”. Serpents are obviously associated with evilness and corruption and the large beaks of storks often kill these “evil thoughts or evil brothers”. Some of the reasoning behind the stork’s high status is connected to the fact that its main enemy represents wickedness. Also since the stork migrated to Asia, which “signifies heavenly things”, people traveling to Asia were thought to “aim for higher things”, just like the stork. century, which is when the Bestiaries were written, the stork had a very optimistic denotation.
The Chinese were also referred to the stork in their ancient folklore. They believed the stork had the ability to bring people up to the heavens. In their ancient legends they believed, “A young flute-player and wandering minstrel who carries a basket laden with fruit. His soul-searching songs caused a stork to snatch him away to the heavens”. In this instance the stork has the power to bring this man to heaven for his enjoyable songs. The Chinese depiction of the stork went along with other views and proclaimed the bird as a messenger of God.
I’ve been drawn to stork-like images, without knowing of their spiritual significance for decades. I would have used a stork for “The Singer” except that I was worried that a long beak in the air on a sculpture would be too delicate & get damaged.
Opposite is a linocut print on paper called the Three Graces that was done over 25 years ago. About the same time I did the oil on canvas painting below, also called the Three Graces. These were interpretations of the famous oil painting by Italian painter Raphael who in turn was inspired by a ruined Roman marble statue in Siena.
I was interested in using this celebrated image of female grace & beauty and applying it to another species. The work questions the primacy placed on human beauty and invites an appreciation of grace & beauty in other species. The melding of human & bird again suggests our interdependence.
More recently, I have explored the stork or crane image in a painting called “StorkWoman Waits”. This is a painting that I have been working on since 1995 when it began as a study of the human figure in a life-painting session at Basic Inquiry Studio at Main & Georgia in Vancouver. I love to draw & paint but have little storage room, so instead of perpetually producing new paintings, I continually re-paint canvases to incorporate whatever ideas I am currently working with.
On the left is the painting as it began in 1995 – a terrible painting by any standard. I took the figure from the studio setting & set her on a beach to practice landscapes. But I found it difficult if not impossible to work with the human female figure without feeling that it was somehow Kitchy. The human female has been done to death in drawings, paintings, photos, sculptures& films such that in the 21st Century any depiction is stereotypical. So I began to experiment with my favourite theme, the human/animal figure.
At first I just substituted a stork’s head for the woman’s, (this iteration was not documented) but then I decided to further play with the image by making it into a sculpture study. So I imagined how it would look if I were to create it as a sculpture in concrete and install it on a beach. The sculpture would be entirely composed of flat planes so that it could either be fabricated out of welded steel or hand-built in concrete. I was also experimenting with a more restricted palette – using only Alizarin Crimson, Viridian Green & white.
I wasn’t happy with the semi-naturalistic landscape setting and wondered if I could make the whole painting into a sculpture study. In other words, apply the restricted palette and planar surfaces to the entire canvas. The idea was to create a world carved in stone – as though the scenario was sculpted out of the side of a mountain.It is still a work in progress and will undoubtably be re-worked some more in the future when I get back to painting.
At this stage I am more interested in the characteristics that previous civilizations have attributed to animals used in myths, so this painting that was originally called simply StorkWoman Waits, is now called Nekhbet. The names of paintings tend to evolve with my understanding of what they are trying to say.
If the study were to be fabricated in 3D it would ideally be much larger than life – about 3 m high. It would be fabulous in stainless steel, but more likely to be realizable in concrete. It would be an interesting experiment to use integral pigments to attain similar colour values to those in the study.
The human/bird fusion myths described above tend to characterize these figures as female and they are on the whole benign entities. The exception would be the Harpies.
In Greek mythology, a harpy (“snatcher”) was one of the winged spirits best known for constantly stealing all food from Phineas. Hesiod calls them two “lovely-haired” creatures, and pottery art depicting the harpies featured beautiful women with wings. Harpies as ugly winged bird-women are a late development, due to a confusion with the Sirens. Roman and Byzantine writers detailed their ugliness. This transition of animal/human mythical creatures from beautiful and benign to wicked and ugly over time is a common theme that emerges in an investigation of animal-human figures.
There are also fascinating myths involving winged males, the most famous of which is the myth of Icarus.
In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus. The main story told about Icarus is his attempt to escape from Crete by means of wings that his father constructed from feathers and wax. He ignored instructions not to fly too close to the sun, and the melting wax caused him to fall to his death. The myth is usually taken as examples of hubris or failed ambition — and is often depicted in art such as The Lament For Icarus by Herbert James Draper.
The universal human longing to fly finds expression in images of angels or humans with bird wings, that have appeared in images of every society throughout history. Creativity is a flight of the imagination, where ideas coming from a quiet place within are given wings. In the beginning, humans built steel flying machines out of the desire to fly like a bird, but in the last hundred years, flying machines have become killing machines that drop death from the air.
I have been exploring the more masculine myths around flying through a series of works called Flying Man. He is a half bird, half human figure in flight suspended atop a tall steel pole. He first appeared in the drawings below.
This is about self-propulsion and the freedom inherent in leaving the internal combustion engine behind. We are not meant to be always weighted down by tons of motorized steel, rubber and plastic.
The Flying Man theme relates to the human desire to move unhindered through space like a bird.It relates to our own inevitable transformation to the non-human plane and asks if it is worthwhile to be earthbound by worldly concerns and neglect one’s spiritual development.
Again, on a personal level, Flying Man is a self-portrait. In my younger days, I frequently experienced flying dreams in which, if I just put myself in the right frame of mind and concentrated fully, I enjoyed exhilarating flights at dizzying heights. With the advent of kids, mortgage etc., the dreams stopped. Flying Man asks if it is worthwhile to be earthbound by embracing weighty responsibilities and neglecting one’s astral self. Up, up and away!
Next Flying Man appeared as a small maquette for a larger work in steel & copper.
This figure would have a stainless steel torso, arms and legs with copper bird’s wings and tail. The copper would be allowed to develop verdigris so that the feathered areas turn watery blue-green over time. The bird/human figure would be cut from sheet metal and assembled along the lines of balsa wood glider construction. The sculpture should be roughly 12′ long, 3′ high and 10′ wide. The wings would be built up in two layers from sections of feathers cut from copper sheet. The tail would also be constructed from copper. The completed stainless steel and copper figure would be bolted into a steel pole.
Variations on this idea include a concept for a flock of flying figures supported on a tree-like structure for which I have no drawings of maquettes. Called Flying Folks, the idea entails many flying half-human/half bird figures in a variety of attitudes and with varying combinations of bird/human attributes. The figures would be assembled along the lines of balsa wood gliders with arms, legs wings and tails slotted into the main body at right angles similar to the flying figure maquette shown above. There might be 40-50 of these figures each roughly 24” long, 8” high and 20” wide. The figures would have polished stainless steel torsos, arms and legs and copper bird’s wings and tails tooled to create a quilled effect. The copper would be allowed to verdigris so that the feathered areas turn watery blue-green over time.
The flying figures would be suspended from numerous stainless steel rods about 8’ long and 1” in diameter attached to a centre steel pole about 4” in diameter and about 15’ high. The rods would branch out in all directions from the centre pole starting at a height of about 10’ or well out of reach of all access points. The piece would be about 20’ high and 15’ in diameter. The flying figures could be mechanized so that they turn and/or tilt simultaneously or in a choreographed sequence. As they moved, they would catch and reflect the light like a flock of birds. The steel pole would be welded onto a thick steel base bolted into a concrete foundation finished to sidewalk level. Another possibility is for the flock of Flying Folk to be suspended in a cloud-like formation from overhead supports.
The other configuration I came up with for the Flying Man was to make him interactive and kinetic using a bicycle as in the following drawing.
I feel that a human empowered sculpture, driven by a bicycle, gives a strong message about sustainable travel and is a celebration of the bicycle as the most efficient, non-polluting machine ever invented for transportation. The connection between the bicycle and the flying figure also evokes the freedom and fun of riding a bike that builds strength and a sense of self-reliance for the rider. The kinetic elements in Flights of Fancy are the two wings of the flying figure suspended on a pole that are driven up and down in a flying motion by the bicycle mounted at the base of the pole. A person pedaling the bike turns a sprocket which in turn moves the chain loop upward to the flying figure whose wings are moved up & down by a crankshaft attached to an upper sprocket. The sculpture would invite and require interaction and engagement with the public to be activated.
The sculpture would be about 3’ h x 9.75’ w x 9.5’ d. The body, arms & legs of the flying figure would be cut from sheet steel. The wing and tail “feathers” would be aluminum and pop riveted onto steel struts that act as the skeleton of the wings. The steel pole acts as an enclosure for the chain loop. There would definitely be some details to fine-tune if this were ever to become a reality, but I think it would make a wonderful piece.
Marion-Lea Jamieson is an artist and sculptor from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada